Excess Androgens, Congenital Disorders and Male Hypogonadism Flashcards Preview

Endocrine- Sex Hormones > Excess Androgens, Congenital Disorders and Male Hypogonadism > Flashcards

Flashcards in Excess Androgens, Congenital Disorders and Male Hypogonadism Deck (32)
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1

What is hirsutism?

Excess hair in a male pattern, in a woman

2

What causes hirsutism?

Excess androgens at the hair follicle

3

Give 4 causes of hirsutism which present with a long history, fairly normal testosterone and no virilisation?

PCOS, familial, idiopathic, non-classical CAH

4

How does hirsutism as a result of an adrenal or ovarian tumour present?

Short history with virilisation

5

What is non-classical CAH?

A partial 21 alpha hydroxylase deficiency which presents in adolescence

6

How may non-classical CAH present?

Hirsutism, menstrual irregularity, infertility

7

What treatment is used in non classical CAH?

Low dose corticosteroid

8

What are the testosterone levels in an androgen secreting tumour?

High (>5)

9

Which out of adrenal and ovarian androgen secreting tumours are more likely to be malignant?

Adrenal

10

XO is what condition? Which sex does this affect?

Turner's syndrome, only affects girls

11

What are some features of Turner's syndrome?

Short stature, webbed neck, wide spaced nipples, lymphedema, delayed puberty

12

What should be screened for in an individual with Turner's syndrome?

Cardiac and renal problems, IBD, osteoporosis and scoliosis

13

What cardiac problems may Turner's cause?

Coarctation of the aorta, bicuspid aortic valve, hypo plastic left heart

14

What is XX gonadal dysgenesis?

Absent ovaries but no chromosomal abnormalities

15

What is testicular feminisation?

Androgen insensitivity syndrome: genetically XY but phenotypically female

16

When is a hysteroscopy performed?

Only in cases where there is suspected or known endometrial pathology

17

What is the main investigation for pelvic disease?

Pelvic ultrasound

18

What are the levels of testosterone and LH/FSH in primary hypogonadism?

Testosterone- low, LH/FSH- high

19

What is the most common congenital form of hypogonadism in males?

Kleinfelter's syndrome

20

What is the chromosomal abnormality in Kleinfelter's syndrome?

XXY

21

What are some symptoms of Kleinfelter's syndrome?

Decreased testicular volume, gynaecomastia, intellectual dysfunction, azoospermia

22

Are people with Kleinfelter's syndrome fertile?

No

23

In Kleinfelter's syndrome, what are the levels of testosterone, LH/FSH, SHBG, oestrogen?

Testosterone- low, everything else high

24

What are the levels of testosterone and LH/FSH in secondary hypogonadism?

Testosterone- low, LH/FSH- inappropriately low

25

What is the main cause of secondary hypogonadism in males?

Hypothalamic/pituitary disease

26

What are some congenital/acquired causes of secondary hypogonadism in males?

IHH, Kallmann's, CAH

27

When is testosterone replacement therapy used in hypogonadism?

In young men (< 50)

28

Does testosterone cause prostate cancer?

No, but it can exacerbate it if it is already there

29

Will testosterone therapy restore fertility?

No

30

What may testosterone therapy help with?

Improved sexual function, bone health, body composition, insulin sensitivity, QOL and cognition

31

Gynaecomastia is a result of an increase in what hormone?

Oestrogen

32

What are some drugs which may cause gynaecomastia?

Oestrogen, testosteron, digoxin, spironolactone