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Flashcards in Exercise Deck (51)
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1

Why are the categories of physical activities we are engaged in?

everyday activity, especially manual jobs
active recreation
sports

2

What is VO2 max?

The maximal oxygen consumption measured during incremental exercise

3

What is VO2 max a good indicator of?

physical aerobic capacity

4

How much oxygen is dissipate with heat?

80%, only 20% goes into doing the exercise

5

Which major artery is the first to get constricted upon intense exercise

splanchnic artery

6

What are the vasodilators involved in heat dissipation

metabolic vasodilators from contracting muscles
NO from endothelium
ATP from unsaturated hemoglobin

7

Why is postural hypertension common post-exercise?

because the MAP is sharply decreased due to muscular vasodilation. BP cannot keep up

8

How do we avoid postural hypertension after exercise

raise the legs and hydrate

9

Why do athletes have a slower heart rate?

Because the stroke volume is higher

10

T/F the period of systole gets extended in an athlete

False, the diastole increases and slows down the HR

11

Why do athletes use EPO?

although exercise increases blood volume, it also dilutes RBC. EPO can increase RBC amount and increase O2 carrying capacity and CO

12

T/F Trained muscles have increased capillary recruitment

True, hence the total delivery of oxygen is enhanced

13

T/F Oxygen saturation is usually not as efficient at the lung when exercising

False, although pulmonary blood flow is faster, the max saturation can still be achieved in most people

14

T/F O2 plays a role in ventilation control

False

15

How does heat impair exercise capacity

dehydration
electrolyte imbalance due to excess sweat
blood diverted to skin rather than muscles

16

How is type I fibre different to type II fibre

type I - higher endurance, higher oxygen capacity
type II - higher force and power output, fatigue prone

17

T/F You can't change the amount of type II fibres you have

False, it's just extremely difficult, but it's much easier the other way around

18

Why is the initial increase in muscle strength so quick with resistance exercise

You are increasing the amount of nerve innervation and motor unit recruitment

19

What are the mitochondrial adaptation with exercise?

increased mitochondrial density and oxidative enzymes
reduced CHO use and lactate production
increased fat oxidation
improved insulin action

20

Which glucose channel is upregulated on muscles with exercise?

GLUT4

21

What happens when athletes "hit the wall"

run out of carbohydrate and only rely on fat

22

Which fuel do we use during sprints

creatine
glycolysis

23

Which fuel do we use in endurance exercise?

aerobic metabolism of fat or carbohydrate

24

At what intensity is fat oxidation most efficient

~50% max intensity (VO2 Max)

25

Why do we use more carbohydrate when we grow older?

because the exercise we do is relatively higher in intensity

26

What is fatigue

inability to maintain the required or expected force or power output

27

When is fatigue pathological

when it manifests at rest

28

What are the feedback signals from the muscles to CNS

running out of ATP
build up of H+ and RoS

29

What do we look for on the ECG when putting a cardiac patient on the treadmill for exercise diagnosis

ST depression

30

What is the Bruce protocol (modified)?

incremental exercise diagnosis, gradually increasing the intensity to avoid premature fatigue