Exotics Anaesthesia Flashcards Preview

NSULA Vet Tech Surgery and Anaesthesia > Exotics Anaesthesia > Flashcards

Flashcards in Exotics Anaesthesia Deck (72):
1

what are some general preanesthetic considerations

Client discussion
reduce animal stress
physical and laboratory evaluation
pre anaesthetic fasting

2

What are some general client discussions you should address before surgery

realistic expectations
prognosis
risks
aftercare provider
cost

3

What are some problems with maintaining body temp in small animals

predisposed to hypothermia

4

What are some problems with maintaining body temp in ectotherms

do not generated their own heat
require external heat sources

5

What are some problems with maintaining body temp in well insulated small animals

susceptible to hyperthermia

6

What are some problems with maintaining body temp in ungulates

prone to malignant hyperthermia

7

What are some ways to measure temp

esophageal thermometer
rectal/clocal thermometer

8

name 6 heat sources that can be used during anesthesia

1) water circulating heating pad
2) incubators
3) hot water bottles
4) warm air blankets
5) rice socks
6) electric heating pad

9

name some methods of heating fluid

- incubator
- warm water bath
- microwave (mix well)
- IV tubing in warm water bath
- fluid heating devices

10

what temp should fluids be preheated to

80-95 degrees F

11

what are the pneumatic bones in birds

humerus in all and femur in many

12

what can happen if you place a catheter by pneumatic bones in birds

causes iatrogenic drowning

13

what is the best route for fluids

iV or intraosseous

14

What should you consider when doing intraperitoneal fluids

may cause peritonitis
not in birds or pregnant animals
express bladder first

15

what should you consider when giving fluids via colonic route

isotonic, warmed- given as enema
absorbed across mucosa

16

standard fluid maintenance rates

40-100 ml/kg/24hr

17

Intraoperative fluid rates

10-20 mL/kg/hr

18

shock fluid rates

30-80 mL/kg in 20 min

19

why should you avoid EDTA in small patient blood transfusions

may cause hypocalcemia

20

what is the anticoagulant of choice in birds

heparin

21

can birds receive interspecies blood transfusions

they can receive one interspecies or genera transfusion
pigeons are the most common donors

22

what effect does atropine have on rodents and lagomorphs

useful to decrease airway secretions

23

what preanesthetic drugs are useful in rodents and lagomorphs

atropine
ace
diazepam

24

what effect does ace have on gerbils

may potentiate seizures

25

what preanesthetic drug is used on camelids

medetomidine

26

what will the stabilized heart rate (%) be as a sign that you need to lighten anesthesia

<80% of stabilized rate after induction

27

what respiratory patterns indicate you need to lighten anesthesia

apneustic
erratic patterns

28

Ectotherms normally develop ___ at surgical plane of anesthesia. what should you do?

Apnea

admin PPV 4-6X/min

29

what are 4 ECG modifications you need to know when dealing with animals without legs/arms

1) Attach clips to steel sutures or metal hubbed needles placed through skin at lead sites
2) Attach clips to alcohol soaked pads placed at usual lead sites
3) Wings are used for forelimb sites in birds
4) Place one clip cranial and one clip caudal to the heart in legless animals

30

where should you place the pulse OX

tongue
esophageal
oral or nasal mucosa
cloaca
vulva

on Nonpigmented skin:
ear
wing web
flank

31

what are some responses in birds less than 30lb that indicate you have reached the surgical plane

slow withdraw- toe, tail, cloacal pinches

slow third eyelid response

32

when you have reached the surgical plane with birds less than 30lbs you lighten anesthesia when you see what reflex

slow third eyelid response

33

What is the prefered rebreathing system for birds under 15lbs

non-rebreathing

34

which birds should you intubate

all birds over 100g

35

how should you induce birds less than 100g

small face mask
make one from syringe cases/rubber gloves

36

describe ET intubation in birds

-Glottis easy to see
-Cuffs not recommended – tracheal rings complete
-Can make small ET tubes from catheters, etc.
-Tape to bird’s beak; monitor for occlusion
-If trachea occluded, can cannulate caudal thoracic air sacs and suture tube in place – use as would ET tube

37

how often should you use PPV in self-ventilating birds

2X/min

38

how often should you use PPV in apneic birds

10-15x/min

39

tidal volume in birds is

15mL/kg

40

what are 2 major anesthesia emergencies in birds

apnea- lighten anesthesia immediately

cardiac arrest follows within 2-5 min

41

how do you recover a bird from anesthesia

hold in towel until able to walk

42

how fast is recovery in birds

<5 min

43

what do you do if a bird beings to have signs of apnea

- PPV; if no ET tube, lift and compress sternum
- 100% oxygen
- Doxapram

44

what do you do if a bird beings to have signs of cardiac arrest

- Epinephrine
- Lift and compress sternum
- Laparotomy - fingertips or cotton-tipped applicators for internal cardiac massage

45

when handling birds greater than 30lbs what should you be cautious of (safety of personnel)

- Large ratites may disembowel a person; never approach from the front
--Use large sheets of wood as shields to herd into corner or chute from sides/rear
-Long-billed birds strike swiftly with beaks
--Always wear eye protection
--Hoods may help calm/restrain birds

46

what are some complications with birds over 30lbs

capture myopathy
hyperthermia
leg fractures

47

when should you use injectable anesthetic in birds

short procedures

48

what injectables can be used for birds over 30lbs before induction

xylazine
telazol
diazepam/ketamine

49

how do you know when a reptile is in the surgical plane

when toe, tail, vent pinches do not elicit withdrawal

most retain third eyelid reflex

50

You need to watch for apnea in reptiles. Which reptiles can hold their breath

chelonians
aquatic squamates
crocodilians

51

how often should you ventilate reptiles

3-6x/min

52

how quick do reptiles recover from ISO

less than 20 min

53

recovery from injectable anesthetics can take how long in reptiles

hours to days

54

what can help speed up recovery in reptiles

fluids and heat

55

what are the 2 main anesthetic emergencies in reptiles

respiratory arrest (apnea is frequent)
cardiac arrest

56

what do you do when a turtle is in respiratory arrest

extend/retract front legs to facilitate respirations while placing ET tube

57

what do you do when a reptile is in cardiac arrest

- 100% oxygen
- Chest compressions if no shell
- Laparotomy – manually compress heart
- Epinephrine

58

what drug can you give when a reptile is in respiratory arrest

doxapram

59

what are some special considerations when handling amphibians and their respiration

- Significant respiration occurs across moist skin
- Do not allow to dry out
- Handle with latex gloves or wet hands

60

what induction agent is given via immersion bath in amphibians

Tricaine methane sulfonate

61

What anesthesia agents should be used when handling fish

finquel
immersion bath

62

how do you treat overdose of anesthesia in fish

- Move to untreated oxygenated water
- Pump oxygenated water through mouth
- “Swim” the fish

63

when anesthetizing rabbits, rodents, and chinchillas with gas inductions what should you be cautious of

they hold breath and then take rapid breaths
- use preanesthetic
- use low induction settings

64

how do you know rabbits and rodents have reached the surgical plane

when they lose withdrawal reflexes

65

what should you remember when using small ET tubes in rabbits and rodents

they clog/kink easily
PPV every 2 mins
keep replacement tubes on hand

66

when intubation rabbits and rodents what must you be careful of not ot create

iatrogenic tracheitis

67

what life threatening problem can happen with oral intubation of rabbits and rodents

hemorrhage/swelling

68

describe how to intubate a rabbit or rodent

Practice and luck
Bounce tube off roof of mouth into larynx
Topical lidocaine to suppress laryngospasm

69

explain retrograde intubation technique in rabbits and rodents

-Aseptically prepare ventral neck
-Over-the-needle catheter passed into trachea
-Retrograde catheter through larynx
-Use as stylet for ET tube
-Remove catheter
-May have to perform “cut-down” to trachea in fat-necked animals

70

what rebreathing system should be used for ferrets

non-rebreathing

71

how long should you withhold food from camelids

24-48 hrs

72

how long should you withhold water from camelids

24hrs