Exp 4: Endocrine System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Exp 4: Endocrine System Deck (50)
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0

Which of the following are considered endocrine tissues rather than an endocrine organ?

small intestine
heart
stomach
kidney

1

What two organs play a primary role in hormone degradation?

liver
kidney

2

The [x] (gland) is a modified sympathetic ganglion producing the amine hormones known as
[z], which includes both [a], the primary hormone secreted and smaller amounts of [b], which is a also a neurotransmitter released from sympathetic post-ganglionic neurons.

X) adrenal medulla
Z) catecholamines
A) epinephrine
B) norepinephrine

3

______ (hormone) from the anterior pituitary stimulates secretion of cortisol from the _____ (gland).

ACTH (adrenocorticotropic hormone); adrenal cortex

4

The parafollicular or C-cells of the _____ gland produce ______, a peptide hormone that ______ calcium levels.

thyroid; calcitonin; lowers

5

Hormones secreted by the pancreatic islets include ______, which ______ blood glucose levels and _______, which lowers blood glucose.

glucagon; raises; insulin

6

_____(hormone) is a stimulus for sperm production in the male and maturation of ovarian follicles in the female.

FSH

7

Which of the following are chemical structure(s) associated with hormones?

protein
amine
steroid
peptide

8

Insulin decreases plasma glucose, amino acids and fatty acids by stimulating the conversion of the to their storage form. Name the storage forms.
glucose -->[x]
amino acids --> [y]
fatty acids + glycerol--> [z]

X) glycogen
Y) proteins
Z) triglycerides

9

The autonomic nervous system also regulates insulin secretion. Sympathetic stimulation _____ insulin secretion and parasympathetic stimulation _______ insulin secretion.

decreases; increases

10

[x] is characterized by resistance of the target cells to insulin. Plasma insulin levels are normal or high. In [y], the lack of insulin secretion from the pancreas leads to hyperglycemia.

X) Type 2 diabetes
Y) Type 1 diabetes

11

With the increase in filtration of glucose with hyperglycemia, the carriers become saturated and glucose appears in the urine, also known as _____.

glucosuria

12

Increased lipolysis produces an increase in plasma lipids, which are converted in the liver to ________ that can be used as fuel for most cells in the body.

Ketones

13

TRH, GnRH, and CRH are secreted from the [x] and regulate the secretion of hormones from the [y].

X) hypothalamus
Y) anterior pituitary

14

True or False: In negative feedback of pituitary hormones, a target hormone feeds back to alter the release of the anterior (stimulating) or hypothalamic (releasing) hormones thus increasing its own release.

False

15

T3 and T4 provide negative feedback on ____ secretion from the anterior pituitary.

TSH

16

Cortisol provides negative feedback to_____

both the anterior pituitary (ACTH) and the hypothalamus (CRH).

17

Cortisol release is synchronized by the light/dark cycle and has a 24 hour pattern of secretion known as a _______ rhythm.

circadian

18

Secretion of cortisol is ________ during early morning and ______ in the middle of the dark cycle.

highest; lowest

19

Which of the following are symptoms of hypothyroidism?

feeling cold
low to normal heart rate
low BMR
lethargy
weight gain

20

_______ is the most common cause of primary hyperthyroidism. The body secretes thyroid stimulating immunoglobulin, which mimics the action of ______.

Grave's disease; TSH

21

What hormones are elevated when an individual is experiencing stress?

cortisol
norepinephrine
epinephrine

22

Primary adrenal insufficiency is known as Addison's disease. What two hormones are deficient?

cortisol
aldosterone

23

______ is hypercortisolism due to a tumor in the anterior pituitary that hypersecretes ______.

Cushing's disease; ACTH

24

Symptoms of Addison's Disease

Low blood pressure
Decreased plasma sodium
Hypoglycemia

25

Symptoms of Cushing's Disease

High Blood Pressure
Poor Wound Healing
Hyperglycemia

26

Which of the following is INCORRECTLY matched with its secreting organ?

TSH - posterior pituitary

27

An abnormally high level of which of the following will result in goiter?

either TRH or TSH

28

A decrease in the level of thyroxine would increase the secretion of _______.

both TSH and TRH

29

In Activity 1, which rat(s) was/were euthyroid without any injections?

the normal rat