Flashcards in Exp 4: Endocrine System Deck (50)
Which of the following are considered endocrine tissues rather than an endocrine organ?
What two organs play a primary role in hormone degradation?
The [x] (gland) is a modified sympathetic ganglion producing the amine hormones known as
[z], which includes both [a], the primary hormone secreted and smaller amounts of [b], which is a also a neurotransmitter released from sympathetic post-ganglionic neurons.
X) adrenal medulla
______ (hormone) from the anterior pituitary stimulates secretion of cortisol from the _____ (gland).
ACTH (adrenocorticotropic hormone); adrenal cortex
The parafollicular or C-cells of the _____ gland produce ______, a peptide hormone that ______ calcium levels.
thyroid; calcitonin; lowers
Hormones secreted by the pancreatic islets include ______, which ______ blood glucose levels and _______, which lowers blood glucose.
glucagon; raises; insulin
_____(hormone) is a stimulus for sperm production in the male and maturation of ovarian follicles in the female.
Which of the following are chemical structure(s) associated with hormones?
Insulin decreases plasma glucose, amino acids and fatty acids by stimulating the conversion of the to their storage form. Name the storage forms.
amino acids --> [y]
fatty acids + glycerol--> [z]
The autonomic nervous system also regulates insulin secretion. Sympathetic stimulation _____ insulin secretion and parasympathetic stimulation _______ insulin secretion.
[x] is characterized by resistance of the target cells to insulin. Plasma insulin levels are normal or high. In [y], the lack of insulin secretion from the pancreas leads to hyperglycemia.
X) Type 2 diabetes
Y) Type 1 diabetes
With the increase in filtration of glucose with hyperglycemia, the carriers become saturated and glucose appears in the urine, also known as _____.
Increased lipolysis produces an increase in plasma lipids, which are converted in the liver to ________ that can be used as fuel for most cells in the body.
TRH, GnRH, and CRH are secreted from the [x] and regulate the secretion of hormones from the [y].
Y) anterior pituitary
True or False: In negative feedback of pituitary hormones, a target hormone feeds back to alter the release of the anterior (stimulating) or hypothalamic (releasing) hormones thus increasing its own release.
T3 and T4 provide negative feedback on ____ secretion from the anterior pituitary.
Cortisol provides negative feedback to_____
both the anterior pituitary (ACTH) and the hypothalamus (CRH).
Cortisol release is synchronized by the light/dark cycle and has a 24 hour pattern of secretion known as a _______ rhythm.
Secretion of cortisol is ________ during early morning and ______ in the middle of the dark cycle.
Which of the following are symptoms of hypothyroidism?
low to normal heart rate
_______ is the most common cause of primary hyperthyroidism. The body secretes thyroid stimulating immunoglobulin, which mimics the action of ______.
Grave's disease; TSH
What hormones are elevated when an individual is experiencing stress?
Primary adrenal insufficiency is known as Addison's disease. What two hormones are deficient?
______ is hypercortisolism due to a tumor in the anterior pituitary that hypersecretes ______.
Cushing's disease; ACTH
Symptoms of Addison's Disease
Low blood pressure
Decreased plasma sodium
Symptoms of Cushing's Disease
High Blood Pressure
Poor Wound Healing
Which of the following is INCORRECTLY matched with its secreting organ?
TSH - posterior pituitary
An abnormally high level of which of the following will result in goiter?
either TRH or TSH
A decrease in the level of thyroxine would increase the secretion of _______.
both TSH and TRH