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A) Chemistry > Experimentation > Flashcards

Flashcards in Experimentation Deck (116):
0

Disposal of broken glass

Sweep it up,
Place in the appropriately marked bin
Record Identity of item on the lab list,
Get a replacement

1

Cracked glassware

Treat as if it were broken

2

Drawer isolation

Glassware is kept away from all other lab materials

3

Fume hoods

Hood over the top of the experiment to suck away vapors

4

Sink disposal

Water only,
No chemicals, tissues, matches

5

Nesting

Arrangement of beakers so that the dmaller beakers fit inside the larger beakers

6

Spillage clean up

Wipe away with a wet sponge

7

Distilled (RO) water

Pure water used for chemical reactions

8

Cleaning glassware

Use dish detergent, not soap
Use sponge not scrub pad
Allow to air dry, inverted

9

Drying agents

Used to quickly dry glassware
ie acetone

10

Measuring pipet

Glass tube with a rubber bulb used to suck liquids of a specified volume

11

Forceps

Special tweezers used to pick up a solid object

12

Watch glass

Used to cover reactions in glass containers
Weighed to measure residue mass
Acts as a great cutting surface

13

Evaporating dish

Porcelin half-sphere, used to hold a substance of small volume during heating

14

Mortar and pestle

Bowl and rounded stick used for crushing a solid into powder

15

Volumistic flask and ground-glass stopper

Tear-shaped glass container with glass cap to contain all of the mass of the reaction inside

16

Round bottom flask

Best used to maximize heat dispersion for the material inside, for bringing a substance to a boil

17

Vaccum flask

Flask with additional nozel to hook up to a suction device to create a pressure difference for filtration

18

Erlenmeyer flask

Glass in which volume can easily be measured

19

Test tube

Glass container used for adding one substance to another for observation

20

Beaker

Ideal container for heating and later pouring,
Glass cylynder

21

Well spot plate

Plastic square with smaller holes used for comparing a substances reaction to a variety of materials

22

Stirring rod

Maximizes molecular interaction within a reaction

23

Beaker tongs

Instrument used to move a heated beaker

24

Test tube holder

Accesory to a ring stand, complete with a clamp to hold the test tube over a bunsun burner or ice bath

25

Thermometer clamp

Used to hold a thermometer over a reaction

26

Test tube holder

Metal inverted tweezers used to lift a test-tube

27

Utility clap

Used to hold a glass container from a ring stand

28

Scoopula

Used for transferring powderized solids

29

Beryl pipet

Used to transfer small volumes of liquid

30

Ring

Used to hold a metal plate over a bunsun burner from a ring stand

31

Wire triangle

Used to hold a bowl in the ring from the ring stand

32

Crucible tongs

Used to lift small heated bowls

33

Graduated cylinder

Used to measure and pour liquids of a specific volume

34

Gravity funnel

Used to control the dispersion rate when pouring a liquid

35

Buechner funnel

Used to filter substances

36

Funnel holder

Used to hold a funnel from a ringstand

37

Heating angle

45 degrees to the side

38

Test tube heating

Test tube holder to position test tube with top of the liquid over flame 45 degrees to the side, facing away from yourself, towards fume hood

39

Buret

Measures liquid dispersed into container, reads bottom to top

40

Buret holder

Mechanical clamp that holds buret from the ringstand

41

Eye protection occurances

ALWAYS

42

Glasses in the lab

Still need safety goggles

43

In case of fire

Go get prof
DO NOT DEAL WITH IT YOURSELF

44

Marked with Red

Flamable

45

Marked with yellow

Both flammable and explosive

46

Marked with blue

Biohazard

47

Occurance of chemical burns

Flood area with cold water

48

Lab clothing

Closed toes,
Covered from neck to knees, tight clothing
Hair tied back

49

Food in the lab

Never allowed

50

Smelling

Hold container away, waft fumes towards you

51

Weighing objects

Wait until cooled
Weigh container first, subtract from the total

52

Significant figures

Record the lowest number of significant figures given from the rest of the data

53

Clamping test tubes

Clamp the tube at the top
Above the surface if the liquid

54

Tasting

NEVER taste

55

Mixing within tubes

Spank the tube

56

'Spanking'

Hold tube at the top,
Flick repeatedly at the bottom

57

Decant liquids

Touch glass rod to beaker spout
Pour down the rod and into container

58

Proper flame

Blue non-luminous flame

59

Water bath

Test tube with substance is dipped in water as the water is being heated

60

Gravity filtration

Set gravity funnel over beaker with filter paper inside
Decant liquid into it

61

Boiling chips

Stones that allow water to reach its boiling point faster

62

Heating a flamable liquid

Place liquid in crucible with lid

63

The bunsun burner setup

1) Attach burner tubing to the gas
2) set gas control to half-open
3) adjust gas contol on the burner to half open too
4) light the flame
5) turn the burner off when not in use

64

Percent error

(MeasuredValue-acceptedValue)/(acceptedValue)

65

Rounding,

5 round up

66

Extensive properties

Depend on the quantity of mass

67

Intensive properties

Properties do not depend on the quantity of material present

68

Dimensions

Length
Width
Height
Radius
Liquid depth

69

Caliper

Used for reading, incredibly small distances

70

Reading a meniscus

Use the lowest point
Liquid has a tendency to 'climb' the sides

71

Converting Farenheight to Celcius

C=(F-32)*(5/9)

72

Converting celcius to kelvin

K=C+273

73

Separatory Funnel

Cone shaped funnel set up in a ring stand, used to partition a mixture into two immiscible solutions of different densities

74

Distillation set up

Round bottom flask over a flame, with a distillation head attatchment. A thermometer loads into the top while a tube, connected by a 'keck clamp' runs out to 'condenser', that supplies water against the flow of gravity. At the other end, also connected by a keck clamp, is a dripping addapter, set over a beaker

75

Sources of chemical information

1) Material safety data sheet,
Contains LD50, lethal doses of chemicals
2) merck index
3) CRC handbook of chemistry and physics

76

Volumetric Pipet

Glass tube, wider in the middle and narrower at the top, used to move liquids at high volume
Comes with an attachment, on which the knob is cranked to draw the liquid up.
Finger is put down on the top, use pressure to deliver
Touch tip to the wall of the flask

77

Coffee cup Calorimeter

Filled with water at a certain temperature, material heated to a certain temperature is dropped inside.
Test with thermometer, until the temperature stops changing

78

Bomb calorimeter

Material is placed in container with pure oxygen.
Container contents are detonated while the container is submerged.
A thermometer is used to measure the change in temperature

79

Heat transferred equation

Q=c*m*ΔT

C= specific heat of substance

80

Calculating specific heat

c=Q/(m*ΔT)

Q- heat transfered

81

Scientific method

Observe
Hypothesis
Experiment
Record results
Draw Conclusion

82

Titration set up

Functioning burret is positioned over a beaker
Positioned inside this beaker is a ph meter electrode

83

Ph meter electrode

Measures the concetration of the solution by the acid content

84

Simple beam spectrophotometer

A light source gives off wavelengths of visible light, in front of a 'wavelength selector' which splits the source beam into its component wavelengths and focuses them onto the sample (contained within a cuvette) the wavelengths pass through this to a 'wavelength detector' to measure the intensity, and convert it into an electrical signal, which is then passed to a a signal processor with a readout

85

Percent transmittence

(TransmittanceOfTheSample)/(transmittance of blank-sample) x100%

86

Absorbance from percent transmittance

A=-log(%T/100)

87

Extinction coeffient (ε)

Physical property of the sample. Depends on the wavelengths absorbed by the sample

88

Beer-lambert law

A= ε*b*C

A- absorbance at a given wavelength
ε- extinction coeffient
b- the path of length
C- conentration in molarity

89

Calibration curve

Chart used to determine the conentration of unknown substances

90

Chalk for the 'Spec 20' Spectrophotometer

Worn down to a 45 degree angle,
And placed in the cuvette
Submerged beneath the substance
Used to reflect light though out the substance

91

Instructions for handling the curvette

Hold at the top, wipe to remove finger prints,
Slowly insert into the spectrometer

92

Settings for the 'Ocean Optics USB2000'

1) click 'OOIChem'
2) pull down the menu for Spectrometer
3) check 'enable strobe'
4) set "Mode of Opperation" to 'scope'
5) set the transmittence knob to 100% T
6) click 'Reference' and adjust integration time to the maximum setting
7) click 'store'

93

What exactly happens to the Curvette

Light travels through the bottom half of the curvette (only nesisary to fill it half-way). Do not fill all the way (risk damage to the spectrometer)
Based on the orientation with which it is inserted, light can pass through the solution at either 5 mm or 10mm

94

When finished storing data from the spectrometer

Always Set to 0% Transmittance
Turn off from the switch
Remove the curvet from the holder

95

Stirring box and rod

Magnetic box used to stir with a rod inside the solution

96

Set up for a voltalic cell

Two beakers are placed side by side, each filled with a reacting solution, a KNO3 salt bridge is dipped from one beaker to another. In each beaker is a reacting electrode. Each of these electrodes is connected to one side of voltmeter

97

Set up for measureing volages of a half cell

A beaker filled with a Cu(NO3)2 solution. With a Cu strip connected to an voltimeter. The other end is attatched to an Fe strip in a FeSO4 solution in a porous cup, dipped in the Cu(NO3)2 solution from the same solution

98

Chromotagraphy

A variety of methods by which a mixture is sepperated

99

Ascending paper chromatogram

An amino acid dot that 'climbs' the paper, leaving behind its constituent components as the paper absorbs another substance

100

Set up Radial Chromatogram

Dots are set up in a circle around the center of a circular paper
Placed over a dish of NaCl solution with a paper wick running from through the center

101

Accuracy

Getting the result you want

102

Precision

The consistancy with which you get your results

103

Arithmetic mean

The average measurement

104

Average deviation from the mean for a specific measurement

(Measured value-mean value)/(mean value)

105

Standard deviation

[Sum of ((measurement-next measurement)^2)/(Number of meaurements-1)]^(1/2)
Least significant figures
Always written as ±StandardDeviation

106

Relative standard deviation

(StandardDeviation)/(mean) x100%

108

Doubtful digit

The last number in the final value when rounding to the lowest number of significant figures

130

Deviations from mean

The difference between each measurement from the average value

131

Goniometer

An instrument that not only measures an angle but allows the object to be rotated

132

Diffraction

The tendency for electromagnetic wavelengths to bend around an object

133

Dueterium

Hydrogen with two neutrons
Aka: heavy hydrogen

134

Disccantation

The process by which one substance is dried by absorbing the moisture into another substance

135

Supercritical drying

Transitioning a material from a liquid to a gas by raising the temperature and pressure beyond the supercritical point, and then lowing the pressure until the substance become a gas

136

Freeze drying

Lowering the temperature on a liquid, until it becomes solid, then lowering the pressure until it sublimates into a gas

137

Scanning electron microscope

Scans an object with a focused beam of electrons and produces an image based on the angular feedback