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Flashcards in Reactions and Stoichiometry Deck (66):
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Chemical reaction

Process by which one or more substances is converted into another substance

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Chemical equation

A way of representing a chemical reaction

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Combustion reaction

An organic compound reacts with oxygen to produce CO2, H2O vapor, and a new compound

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Combustion analysis

A reaction interpretation method in which a controlled reaction occurs allowing the CO2 from the reaction to be absorbed by a material while the water vapor is absorbed by another material, leaving only the combustion residue

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Reactants

Substances that undergo change in a chemical reaction

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Products

Materials produced as a result of chemical reaction

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Balance

The state of a chemical equation in which all the atoms of all the products are equal on their side

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Synthesis (Combonation) Reaction

Two reactants come together to compose a single product

A+B→AB

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Decomposition Reaction

A single reactant breaks apart into two products

AB→A+B

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Single replacement reaction

The compound reactant decomposes and allows the atomic reactant to become the new compound, the pairing switches places

AB+C→A+CB

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Double replacement reaction

Cations switch anions

AB+CD→AD+CB

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Reduction

A reactant either looses an oxygen, or gains a hydrogen in a red-ox reaction
Reactant stops being an anion or starts being an cation
Lowering its overall charge

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Oxidation

A reactant that either gains an oxygen or looses a hydrogen in a red-ox reaction
Reactant stops being a cation or starts being an anion
Raising its overall charge

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Reducing agent

In a Red-ox reaction, the reactant that donates its hydrogen, or accepts an oxygen

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Oxidizing Agent

In a Red-ox reaction, the reactant that donates its oxygen, or accepts a hydrogen

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Red-ox reaction

Reaction in which a compound either looses or gains a hydrogen or oxygen, resulting in a change in reactant charge

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Stoichiometry

The study of the amounts in, mass or moles, of products or reactants

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Moles present

(Mass2/Mass1)
x(MolarMass1/MolarMass2)
xMoles1

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Mass

(MolarMass2/MolarMass1)
x(Moles2/Moles1)
xMass1

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Molar mass

(Mass2/Mass1)
x(Moles1/Moles2)
xMolarMass1

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Limiting Reactant

The reactant that runs out first in a reaction

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Access Reactant

Remaining reactant after the reaction has finished

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Basic stochiometry equation

(MolarMass1/MolarMass2)x(Moles1/Moles2)=(Mass1/Mass2)

One entire mass equation over another
Can use algebra to solve for all else

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Theoretical yeild

Mass that should be produced by the equation

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Actual yeild

Mass of a given product produced during the reaction

Always given

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Percent yield

(ActualYield)/(TheoreticalYield)x100%

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Molecular equations

Chemical equations that show the (aq) of solution reactants and display which products are still (aq) and which have changed phase

Do not show ionic charge

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Complete ionic equations

Chemical formulas written with (aq) items as individual ions, show charges in each

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Spectator ions

Ions that do not participate in the reaction
Go unchanged when solutions are mixed

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Net ionic equations

Ionic equation written without spectator ions

Include the charge and phase, but only for the ions that participate in the equation

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Acid-base reaction

An acid reacts with a base and the two neutralize eachother

[Acid]+[Base]→[Water]+[Salt]

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Gas-evolution reaction

Reaction in which a gas forms, resulting in bubling

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Electron motion in red-ox reaction

Leaves the reducing agent on an oxygen ion and travels to the other reactant

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Oxidation Number

The 'charge' that atom would have if all the electrons were at their most attractive atom,
Important in combustion reactions

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Complex Ion

A central transition metal bonded to one or more ligand

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Ligand

A lewis base that forms a bond with a metal

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Coordination compound

Neutral compound that results from the combination of a complex ion nd one or more counter-ion

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Counter-ion

Ions of an opposite charge to the complex ions, but that do not act as ligands

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Primary valence

Oxidation state of the central metal ion

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Secondary valence

Number of atoms or molecules bonded to the central metal ion
Aka: coordination number

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Coordination Number

Number of atoms or molecules bonded to the central metal ion
Aka: secondary valance

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Coordinate covalent bond

A bond type in which a transition metal is bonded to lewis bases by an electron pair

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Monodentate ligand

Coordination complexes that donate only one pair of electrons to a central transition metal

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Bidentate ligand

Coordination complexes that donate two pairs of electrons to a central transition metal

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Polydentate ligand

Coordination complexes that donate many pairs of electrons to a central transition metal

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Chelating agent

coordinating ligant in a coordination complex

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EDTA ligand

Wraps itself arround the metal completely

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Chealte

Coordination complexes with a ligand that is not monodentate

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Writing coordination complex complounds

1) Metal comes first
2) Lewis is included in brakets

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Arrehenius Plot

Linear function

Ln(k)=(-Ea/R)(1/T)+ln A
Derived from: ln(k)=ln(Ae^(-Ea/RT)

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Bronsted Lowry definitions of acids and bases

Defined by whether they accept an H+ proton

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Amphoteric substances

Substances that act either as an acid or a base

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Catalyst

A substance that increases the rate of a chemical reaction but is not consumed by the reaction itself

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Heterogeneous catalyst

Catalyst that exists in the same state as the reactants

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Heterogeneous catalyst

Catalyst that exists in a different state from the reactants

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Hydrogenation

Adding a hydrogen atom to an already stable molecule

H2+CH2→H3C+CH3

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Enzyme

A type of naturally occurring biological catalyst

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Activation site

The portion of the enzymes surface that acts as the catalyst

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Substrate

The reactant molecule when an enzyme is used as the catalyst

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Solvation

The reaction of an ionic compound with a solvent

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First law of electrolysis

Mass of a reacted substance is proportional to the charge through boltsman constant)
m=k*q

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Second law of electrolysis

when the same amount of electricity is passed through different electrolytes connected in series, the mass of substance liberated/deposited at the electrodes is directly proportional to their equivalent weights.

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Electrolysis of water

Water is broken into hydrogen and oxygen

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Electrocrystalization

The process of forming conductive crystals on the surface of the electrode

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Crystallography

The science that examines the arrangement of atoms in solids

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Determining the limiting reactant

Calculate the decimal of the theoretical mole ratio,
Calculate the decimal of the actual mole ratio,
If actual>theoretical, denominator element is limiting
If actual