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Flashcards in export_upper respiratory viruses i Deck (53)
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1
Q

Symptoms of the common cold

A

Rhinitis

Pharyngitis

2
Q

Which symptoms are not found in the common cold?

A

No high fever, LRT involvement, or respiratory distress

3
Q

When do colds occur most frequently?

A

Spring and fall

More common in children than adults

4
Q

Complications of common cold

A

Otitis media
Sinus infections

Exacerbation of asthma

5
Q

Which common cold virus exacerbates asthma the most?

A

Rhinovirus C

6
Q

Which viruses cause the common cold (most to least frequent)?

A

Rhinovirus
Other known viruses

Coronavirus

7
Q

Rhinovirus family and characteristics

A

Picornavirus
+ssRNA

Non-enveloped

8
Q

Viral species of rhinovirus

A

A, B, and C

Over 100 different serotypes

9
Q

Clinical implications of rhinovirus

A

Shed in respiratory secretions, transmission via direct contact with these secretions

10
Q

Incubation period of rhinovirus

A

1-3 days

11
Q

Treatment for rhinoviruses

A

Alleviation of symptoms
Antihistamines and decongestants

Antibiotics ONLY with bacterial superinfections

12
Q

Prevention of rhinoviruses

A

Hand washing and cough/sneeze into elbow

Due to high number of serotypes, no vaccine is available

13
Q

Non-SARS coronavirus characteristics

A

Enveloped

+ssRNA

14
Q

Clinical implications of non-SARS coronaviruses

A

Replicate in epithelial cells
Transmission through large droplets

Optimal temperature is cooler than body temp

15
Q

Incubation period for non-SARS coronaviruses

A

~3 days

16
Q

Outbreaks of coronaviruses

A

Spring and winter months

17
Q

Who is most likely to get a non-SARS cornavirus infection?

A

Infants and children

18
Q

Non-SARS coronavirus treatment and prevention

A

Alleviate symptoms

No vaccine

19
Q

Adenovirus characteristics

A

Non-enveloped

dsDNA

20
Q

Adenovirus fiber proteins

A

Protrude from icosahedral capsid, used for attachment and are toxic

21
Q

Clinical implications of adenoviruses

A

Transmission from oral, droplet inhalation, or conjunctiva

Replication in respiratory epithelia

May enter lymphoid tissue, and shedding can occur for up to 18 months

No seasonal pattern

22
Q

Adenovirus variation

A

Over 50 serotypes

Types 1, 2, and 5 most common for respiratory disease

23
Q

Other infections caused by adenoviruses

A

Pharygoconjunctival fever
Croup

Bronchiolitis

Pneumonia

Types 40 and 41 associated with GI disease

24
Q

Treatment for adenoviruses

A

Reducing symptoms

25
Q

Prevention of adenoviruses

A

Immunity long-lived and serotype specific

Live, oral vaccine for types 4 and 7 to military recruits

26
Q

Coxsackieviruses virus family and characteristics

A

Enterovirus subfamily of picornaviruses
Non-enveloped

+ssRNA

27
Q

Coxsackieviruses replication

A

Fast, in the cytoplasm

28
Q

Clinical implications of coxsackieviruses

A

Transmitted through fecal-oral route

29
Q

Herpangina

A

Caused by coxsackievirus
Abrupt fever, vesicles on soft palate

Most common in children (1-7)

30
Q

Hand-Foot-Mouth disease

A

Caused by coxsackievirus
Fever, vesicular lesions on hands, feet, and oral cavity

Most frequent in children

31
Q

Other common cold viruses

A
Influenza viruses (particularly B and C)
Respiratory syncytial virus

Parainfluenza virus

32
Q

Croup presentation

A

Laryngotracheobronchitis

Swelling of the subglottic region of the larynx

33
Q

Croup symptoms

A

Fever
Distinct, brassy cough (seal’s bark)

Inspiratory stridor

Narrowing of air shadow of trachea - “steeple sign”

34
Q

Prodromes for cough

A

Nasal discharge
Mild cough

Pharyngitis

35
Q

Incidence of croup

A

Highest in children less than 6 years

36
Q

Complications of croup

A

Hypoxia

37
Q

Croup treatment

A

Alleviate symptoms

38
Q

How do you treat croup if there is NO stridor at rest?

A

Humified air

Hydration

39
Q

How do you treat croup if there IS stridor at rest?

A

Oxygen
Epinephrine

Glucocorticoids

40
Q

Croup etiology

A
Parainfluenza virus (type 1 most common, but 2 and 3 can too)
Respiratory syncytial and measles viruses
41
Q

Parainfluenza virus family and characteristics

A

Paramyxovirus
Helical nucleocapsid

Envelope (with hemagglutinin and neuraminidase)

-ssRNA (RNA synthesis in cytoplasm)

42
Q

Clinical implications of parainfluenza viruses

A

Transmission via large droplets and direct contact

Replicate in ciliated epithelium of respiratory tract

43
Q

Incubation period of parainfluenza virus

A

2-10 days

44
Q

Influenza symptoms

A

Myalgia
Headache

Fever/chills

Cough, peak on days 3 and 5

Fatigue and generalized weakness

45
Q

Incidence of influenza

A

Infections peak during winter months

46
Q

Incubation period for influenza

A

2 days

47
Q

People with increased risk of complications from influenza?

A

Children under 2 years
Adults over 65 years

Pregnant women and up to 2 weeks postpartum

48
Q

Pneumonia

A

Inflammation of the lung parenchyma, resulting in abnormal gas exchange

49
Q

Symptoms of pneumonia

A

Fever
Chills

Cough

Pleural chest pain

Increased respiratory rate

Wheezes and crackles

Hypoxia and cyanosis

50
Q

Primary influenza virus pneumonia cause

A

Usually influenza A

51
Q

Primary influenza virus pneumonia symptoms

A

1-4 days after influenza symptoms
Increased cough, respiratory distress, etc.

Sputum gram stain - abundant PMN, but not significant bacteria

52
Q

Bacterial influenza-associated pneumonia onset and symptoms

A

Usually one week after influenza symptoms

Increased cough, return of fever, respiratory distress

53
Q

Bacterial influenza-associated pneumonia etiology

A

S. pneumoniae
S. aureus and H. influenzae

N. meningitidis, other streptococcus, and Gram negative bacillus