Flashcards in External Structures Deck (36):
What cranial nerves are associated with the medulla?
IX, X, XII, XI
Disruptions of breathing and heart rate are indicative of what level of lesion?
What cranial nerves are associates with the pons?
V, VI, VII
Facial paralysis or eye deviation are indicative of what level lesion?
What cranial nerves are associated with the forebrain?
Loss of smell or vision loss, changes in memory and mental function are indicative of what level lesion?
How many laminar layers does the neocortex have?
6. They change in morphology depending on the structure's function.
Occipital lobe (V1, Area 17) functions?
Primary visual cortex (cuneate and lingual gyri)
Unilateral lesion of a portion of the occipital lobe would present with...
Scotomas in the contralateral visual field
The primary visual cortex is connected by?
Splenium of the corpus callosum
Structures in the pareital lobe? (3)
1. post central gyrus
2. superior pareital lobule
3. inferior pareital lobule (angular and supramargainal gyri)
Function of the post central gyrus?
Primary somatosensory cortex, S1, Area 1, 2, 3.
Lesion of areas of the post central gyrus would cause what deficits?
Somatosensory loss on the contralateral side
Function of the superior pareital lobule?
Helps in guiding movements
Lesions of the superior pareital lobule would cause what deficits?
Apraxia (inability to perform a learned purposeful movement)
Function of the angular gyrus?
Visual connection to language
Inability to read is associated with lesion to what area?
Function of the supramarginal gyrus?
Part of Wernicke's area (language comprehension)
Lesions to the right inferior pareital lobule would cause what deficits?
Left hemispatial neglect
Structures in the temporal lobe? (7)
1. Heschel's gyrus
2. superior temporal gyrus
3. middle temporal gyrus
4. inferior temporal gyrus
5. fusiform gyrus
6. parahippocampal gyrus
Function of Heschel's gyrus?
Primary sensory for audition (processed bilaterally). Projects audition of language to Wernicke's area.
Function of superior temporal gyrus?
Planum temporale is part of Wernicke's area
The middle temporal, inferior temporal, and fusiform gyri are associated with what function?
Visual memory and perception
Prosopagnosia (inability to recognize faces) is associated with a lesion in what area?
Bilatera temporal lobe lesion - middle, inferior temporal gyri, fusifrom gyrus.
Function of the parahippocampal gyrus and uncus?
Bilateral damage to the parahippocampal gyrus would cause what deficit?
Structures in the frontal lobe? (4)
1. precentral gyrus
2. superior frontal gyrus
3. middle frontal gyrus
4. inferior frontal gyrus
Function of the precentral gyrus?
Primary motor cortex. Area 4, M1.
Lesions to the precentral gyrus would cause what deficits?
Paresis of contralateral structures
Functions of the superior and middle frontal gyri?
Secondary or pre-motor areas for organization of voluntary movements. This includes the frontal eye fields.
Damage to the superior and middle frontal gyri would cause what deficits?
Apraxia, inability to write (if in dominant hemisphere)
Function of the inferior frontal gyrus?
Broca's area (speech programming)
Damage to what structure causes the loss of ability to produce fluent speech?
The prefrontal cortex is associated with what functions?
Personality, complex tasks, decision making
Wernicke's aphasia is characterized by?
Inability to understand language and to speak coherently.