Flashcards in Extra: Cold War SFD Deck (54)
What was the detailed reason as to why the Truman Doctrine was created?
After the Second World War, much of Europe was devastated and citizens in countries such as Italy, France, Greece, Turkey and the United Kingdom were suffering great hardships. In these conditions communism was highly appealing because communists believe that the wealth of the richest people should be shared out among the poor
What did the Truman Doctrine change about America's policies?
This marked a reversal of the USA's traditional policy of 'isolationism' by which America had stayed out of international affairs.
What countries and how many welcomed the Marshall plan?
16, including Britain and France
How was Yugoslavia taken over?
Marshall Tito took over the country in 1945 and in 1948 relationships worsened so Tito split from the USSR and took aid under the Marshall Plan.
How was Albania taken over?
In 1945 while the war was going on because they had the least opposition
How were the Baltic states taken over - Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania?
There was no pretence of them being separate from the USSR because they were treated as part of the USSR.
How was East Germany taken over?
In 1949 after supposedly 'free elections' it was announced that it was a separate country from the other 3 zones. It became the communist German Democratic Republic. In June 1953 demonstrations broke out against communist policies. 1000s were arrested and 100s were wounded.
How was Bulgaria taken over?
Late 1944 while the war was still going on a coalition of left-wing parties took over Bulgaria. In NOvember 1945 they held 'free elections' and the communists won by intimidation.
How was Hungary taken over?
There were GENUINELY free elections in 1945 and the communists did not win enough seats to come to power. Then in 1947 there were supposedly 'free elections' that were won by intimidation.
What was the reaction to Marshall Aid in France?
2 million worker sympathetic to the communists went on strike in the winter of 1947 because they wanted the government to reject Marshall aid.
Use an example to describe how violent the enforcement of cominform was;
In Hungary 5% of the population was imprisoned by 1953
Who made up Comecon?
USSR, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland and Romania (1949)
Albania and Eastern Germany joined in 1950
What did the Allies do in 1948 in Western Germany because of the current situation?
Britain, France and the USA agreed to set up a German assembly to create a German constitution. They introduced a new currency called the Deutschmark which became the official currency of trizonia.
- Stalin believed they were the first steps towards creating a permanently divided Germany
What did the USA send during the Berlin Blockade?
70 large cargo planes, between 600 and 700 tonnes of food everyday. This had to increased to 1000 tonnes within the first couple of weeks.
What did Britain supply during the Berlin Blockade?
Similar to America. At its height; 170,000 tonnes of supplies during 1949
What aircraft did the USA and the USSR make by 1955 as part of the arms race?
USA: B52 stratofortress
Soviet Union: TU20 Bear
What lead to riots in Budapest on the 23rd of October 1956?
Bad harvests, fuel and bread shortages
What did America do after the Hungary invasion?
$20 million of food and medical aid
80,000 Hungarian refugees were allowed to move to the USA
How did Kennedy prepare for war after Berlin Crisis (meetings)?
Committed the US government to an additional $3.2 billion of defence spending.
An extra $207 million spent building nuclear fallout shelters
How many times more weapons did the USA have over the USSR during the Berlin Crisis?
Almost 20 times more
What did Kennedy famously say to the people of West Berlin when he toured there in 1963?
"All free men, wherever they live, are citizens of Berlin and therefore as a free man, I take pride in the words Ich bin ein Berliner."
What did USA schools do to prepare for a nuclear attack?
They did 'duck and cover' rehearsals
What was the USA's particular area of concern in the arms race?
The rate at which the USSR were building nuclear weapons and size of these weapons - the Tsar Bomba detonated in 1961 weighed 8 tonnes, 100 times more powerful than those the Americans dropped on Japan and created a fireball 8km in diameter.
What concerned Americans in 1957 during the arms race?
Americans thought that the rockets used to put Sputnik 1 - the worlds first man-made satellite in the air could be used to launch nuclear missiles at America, however the USSR was not wealthy enough to mass produce missiles.
According to the US department of trade how much Cuban trade did they run in 1956?
90% of phone and electric supply
50% of railways
40% of all sugar production
And they owned and supplied all the oil refineries
How were the USA going to make the Cuban invasion look like a Cuban revolt?
They had been training Cuban exiles in guerrilla fighting and they could disguise old US planes to look like Cuban ones.
How many troops invaded at the Bay of Pigs?
The Cuban-exile army of about 1,400 invaded on the 17th of April and was soon facing sir attacks and 20,000 of Castro's troops.
What happened when Kennedy told the American people the USSR was going to build nuclear missiles on their doorstep (on the 22nd of October 1962)?
They panicked and started building nuclear shelters in preparation for nuclear war. Also, a nuclear submarine was prepared by the US navy and 156 ICBMs were primed for launch.
What did Kennedy say in his speech of June 1963, following the Cuban Missile Crisis?
He signaled his commitment to working with the USSR and said that both superpowers need to focus on their "common interests"