Topic 4 - Economic And Social Changes 1928-1939 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Topic 4 - Economic And Social Changes 1928-1939 Deck (29)
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What was collectivisation

Collectivisation was bringing all individually run farms into large state run farms. This meant the state could control what was produced as peasants had to meet production targets


What were the two types of collective farm

Sovkozy - large, state farms run by a manager
Kokhozy - run by committees of peasants


Where did peasants borrow equipment from

Machine and Tractor Stations (MTS)


Why did Stalin introduce collectivisation

- more food needed to be produced (feed town people, to export for money towards machinery)
- it would destroy the Kulaks


What is mechanisation

Moving from working mostly / exclusively by hand or with animals to doing that work with machinery


Why would mechanisation be easier on collective farms

The state could provide machinery to the peasants and make them use it


Who were the Kulaks

Peasants who had used the NEP to become wealthy and make enough profit to buy more land and maybe even employ other peasants.


Who opposed most to collectivisation

The Kulaks
This is because they had the most to lose and had worked very hard for their money


Why did Stalin want to modernise Russia quickly

Stalin felt that changes had to be made quickly to the Soviet Union in order to catch up (industrially) with the west (Russia was 50-100 years behind). He was paranoid that if he did not do this, the West would try to crush communism


Why were many peasants opposed to collectivisation

They didn't like being told what to do
Didn't want to give up their land
They preferred the traditional farming style and did not feel responsible to feed the people in the city


Stalins response to opposition to collectivisation

Sent officials to find hidden crops
Purged the kulaks
From 1928 onwards, collectivisation was enforced and those who did not co-operate were shot or arrested


When did Stalin enforce collectivisation



Achievements of collectivisation

- by 1935 over 90% of farms were collectivised
- more young people went to agricultural school
- by 1934, rationing if most items ended


Failures of collectivisation

- famine 1932-33
- many peasants were resentful, therefore only just worked hard enough to avoid punishment
- new machinery was made quickly by unskilled workers, bad quality


Famine of 1932-33

Peasants were destroying crops and animals as a reaction to forced collectivisation, and this effected everyone. 3 million people starved


The Kolkhoz charter, 1935

This allowed peasants about an acre of land to grow their own crops on and keep cows and pigs


Why was the Kolkhoz charter implemented

To stop peasants resenting collectivisation


What were the 5 year plans?

The 3 Five-Year Plans set industrialisation targets. This was a strategy for the Soviet Union that was broken down so that every factory, mine, or electricity plant had its own targets. However these were often reviewed so that workers would feel encouraged when they reached them


The first 5 year plan

Targets for production of iron, steel, coal, oil, and electricity
'Official' figures said they completed it in 4 years, they didn't actually until 1940 = propaganda


The second 5 year plan

Began early (was planned for 1933), because of the 'success' of the first plan
Targeted the same industries as the first plan, but also with production for tractors, combine harvesters, and the extension of railways
With its head start and lower target, it met its goals


The third 5 year plan

The first to include 'luxury' items like radios and bikes
Interrupted by WW2


Achievements of the 5 year plans

- Soviet Union was industrialised to defeat Nazi invasion in 1941
- unemployment dropped sharply
- higher living standards
- cities developed quickly; now had paved roads, electricity, drains
- by 1936, one third of people now lived in cities


Why emphasis on productivity was a problem

People were making goods quickly and with little thought put in, just to reach targets. Quality suffered as a consequence


What was Gosplan

A Government planning office that decided how much industry in the Soviet Union was to grow in each five year period.


How did Stalins attitude towards ethnic minorities change from 1932?

He used to encourage republics to celebrate nationality. However after 1932, he wanted there to be a dominant Russian culture (Russification) and enforced it in states most likely to revolt.
Stalin also encouraged atheism


What reforms did the Bolsheviks introduce involving women

- non-church marriage was set up
- divorce was made simple
- equal voting rights
- equal pay for equal work
- equal education opportunities


Effects of industrialisation on women

- they were needed for factory work, by 1940 there were over 13 million women working in all types of industry
- laws were passed to make them more equal to me
- free nurseries and laundries were opened so women could get to work


What was progressive piecework

Introduced in 1934
Workers no longer had a set wage, they were paid for thee amount they produced. This along, with the rewards system, encouraged high production



Stalin wanted all the Soviet Union to have a dominant Russian culture, since he saw all others as inferior. Russification was patchy and most strongly enforced in areas most likely to revolt