Eye and Ear Disorders Flashcards Preview

My Pathology > Eye and Ear Disorders > Flashcards

Flashcards in Eye and Ear Disorders Deck (34):
1

Arcus senilis/lipoides

• Elderly or HLD+smoking pts
• Gray-opaque ring at corneal margin
• Cholesterol deposits in corneal stroma

2

Ophthalmia neonatorum

• Conj in newborn
• Neisseria gonorrhoeae or Chlamydia trachomatis

3

Bacterial conjunctivitis

• Purulent conjunctivitis WITHOUT blurry vision
• Staph aureus, Strep pneumoniae, H. influenzae

4

Viral conjunctivitis

• Watery exudates
• Adenovirus: pinkeye
• HSV1: keratoconjunctivitis w/ dendritic ulcers

5

Acanthamoeba infection

Severe keratoconjunctivitis in pts who don't clean contacts

6

Chalazion

Granulomatous inflammation of meibomian gland

7

Pterygium

• Exposure to wind, sun, sand
• Raised, triangular encroachment of thickened conjunctiva on nasal side

8

Pinguecula

Yellow-white conj degeneration at jxn of cornea and sclera on temporal side; sun-damaged tissue

9

Optic neuritis

• Blurry or lost vision, may cause optic atrophy
• MS, methanol poisoning

10

Central retinal artery occlusion

• Embolization from carotid or ophthalmic artery; giant cell temporal arteritis
• Sudden, painless, unilateral loss of vision
• Pallor or optic disk, "boxcar" segmentation of blood in retinal veins, cherry-red macula

11

Central retinal vein occlusion

• Caused by hypercoagulable state
• Sudden, painless, unilateral loss of vision
• Swollen optic disk, engorged retinal veins, "blood and thunder" appeareance

12

Glaucoma

• Increased IOP
• Chronic open-angle: decreased rate of aqueous outflow in severely myopic people; cupping of optic disks; night blindness, tunnel vision
• Acute angle-closure: precipitated by mydriatic agent, uveitis, lens dislocation; red eye w/ steamy cornea; pupil fixed, nonreactive

13

Uveitis

• Inflammation of iris, ciliary body, choroid
• Sarcoidosis, ulcerative colitis, ankylosing spondylitis
• Pain w/ vlurry vision, miotic pupil, normal IOP, adhesions b/w iris and anterior lens capsule
• When chronic: may cause calcific band keratopathy

14

Macular degeneration

• Elderly
• Disruption of Bruch membrane in retina
• Dry type: thinning of retina, deposits called drusen
• Wet type: vessels under retina hemorrhage, cells die —> blind spots or distorted central vision

15

CMV retinitis

• Usually painless, unlike VZV retinitis
• AIDS pts
• Cotton-woll exudates, retinal hemorrhages

16

Cataracts

• Lens opacity
• Advanced age, DM, congenital infection, corticosteroids, intraocular disease

17

Meniere disease

• 40-60 y/o
• Inner ear: increased endolymph, loss of cochlear hairs
• Dizziness, tinnitis, hearing loss

18

Weber test

• Sensorineural: contralateral ear affected
• Conduction: lateral ear affected

19

Otosclerosis

• Elderly
• Fusion of middle ear ossicles

20

Malignant external otitis

• DM patients
• Mastoiditis, oteomyelitis, meningitis, etc.
• MCC: Pseudomonas aeruginosa

21

Relapsing polychondritis

• Autoimmune disease, Abs to connective tissue
• Inflammation that destroys cartilage, including ear

22

Chronic serous otitis media

• Goblet cell metaplasia in middle ear
• Hemorrhage, with erythrocyte destruction and cholesterol liberation —> cholesterol granuloma

23

Cholesteatoma

• Mass of accumulated keratin and squamous mucosa in middle ear
• Growth of squamous epithelium from external ear thru perforated TM

24

Jugulotympanic paraganglioma

• MC benign tumor of middle ear
• Lobules of richly vascular connective tissue
• Neural crest origin; contain catecholamines

25

Chlamydia-associated eye disease

• Upper conjunctiva: trachoma
• Lower conjunctiva: inclusion conjunctivitis

26

Onchoceriasis

• Helminth of Africa and Central America
• Corneal opacification and visual impairment ("river blindness")

27

Phacoanaphylactic endophthalmitis

• Traumatized or cataractous lens
• Autoimmune rxn to lens proteins

28

Sympathetic ophthalmitis

• Arrestin acts as antigen
• Granulomatous inflammation of other eye 4-8 weeks after uveitis
• Dalen-Fuchs nodules b/w Bruch membrane and retinal pigment epithelium

29

Retinal hemorrhage

• HTN, DM, trauma, bleeding disorders
• Flame-shamed: nerve fiber layer
• Round: deeper

30

Retinal detachment

• Sensory retina separates from retinal pigment epithelium
• Happens after eye trauma/surgery

31

Retinitis pigmentosa

• May have RHO or PDE mutation
• Destruction of rods, then cones; attenuation of vessels
• Night blindness, peripheral vision defects

32

Retinopathy of prematurity (retrolental fibroplasia)

• Results from high levels of inspired O2 in premature infants
• Developing retinal vessels are obliterated
• Deluge of angiogenesis when returned to ambient air may cause blindness

33

Phthisis bulbi

Intraocular ossification after trauma or inflammation

34

Retinoblastoma

• Young children
• Malignant tumor of immature neurons
• May have densely packed cells, rosettes, or fleurettes
• Disseminate via optic nerve to brain or via choroid to blood
• White pupil, strabismus, spontaneous hyphema, painful eye, cat's eye reflex, glaucoma