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Clin med II Eye and Cardio > Eye disorders > Flashcards

Flashcards in Eye disorders Deck (139)
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1

Most common cause of orbital fx in kids and adults 

•Children, Adolescents

•Sports trauma Projectiles- baseball

•Adults

•Assaults MVC Industrial accidents

2

What is the most common fracture of the orbital rim

Orbital Zygomatic fx

3

Orbital Zygomatic fx is often associated w/ fracture of _____________ fracture

orbital floor Zygomaticomaxillary complex (tripod)

4

Disruption of the medial canthal ligament and lacrimal duct system is what type of fx

Nasoethmoid Fx

5

type of injury associated w Nasoethmoid Fx

Medial rectus muscle entrapment

6

type of fracture that results from high impact blow to lateral orbit

Orbital Zygomatic fx

7

describe an Orbital floor / “blow out” fx

Displacement of the globe

Entrapment of the inferior rectus muscle à Resulting ischemia and loss of muscle function

8

fx resulting from a small round object hitting eye or direct blow to infraorbital rim

Orbital floor / “blow out” fx

9

what type of fx

Orbital floor / “blow out” fx

10

what type of fx has a High association with intracranial injury

Orbital Roof Fx

11

Injury to infraorbital nerve decreased sensation along the ____, ____ ___, and _____.

cheek upper lip and gingiva

12

gold standard for imaging orbital fx

•CT Orbit Gold Standard 1-2 mm cuts

•Axial and coronal through orbits

13

what is hyphema

MOI?

Blood in anterior chamber

Typically caused by blunt trauma or penetrating injury to orbit or globe

•Finger, hockey stick, racquet, ball

• Deployed airbag

• Paintball

•Assault

14

tx of hyphema 

Goal is to prevent secondary hemorrhage and intraocular hypertension, increase absorption of blood

Limit activity

Daily monitoring of IOP

Eye shield

Topical glucocorticoids- prednisone acetate, dexamethasone sodium phosphatate QID- lowers risk of re-bleeds

+/- Cycloplegics and Mydriatics

15

Regarding hyphema the most common source of blood is tear in the anterior face of the ____ ____.

ciliary body

16

Pt presents with:

Vision loss

Eye pain with pupillary constriction

 Photophobia

 

dx?

hyphema 

17

what nerve is affected in a corneal abrasion

Trigeminal CN 5

18

Most frequent cause of visits for ophthalmic emergencies is

FB with corneal abrasion

19

Tx of corneal abrasion

Topical antibiotics

Erythromycin • Polymyxin • Sulfacetamide

 

No patching recommended

No ophtho f/u for small abrasions

 

Contact Wearers: anti-psuedemonals

Ciproflox drops • Oxiflox drops • Gentamicin • Tobramicin

20

when treating a corneal abrasion in a contact lense wearer what must you conisder adding to tx

Contact Wearers: anti-psuedemonals

Ciproflox drops

Oxiflox drops

Gentamicin

Tobramicin

 

opth f/u

21

Indication for ophthalmologist f/u in corneal abrasions 

Large abrasions

Contact lens wearer

Young children

Vision changes

Rust ring

22

Flourescein is an important diagnostic tool that can be used after _____. 

after open globe ruled out

23

common bacterial causes of corneal ulcers 

pseudomonas staph strep MRSA Moraxella liquefaciens (DM, alcoholics)

24

common causes of viral and fungal corneal ulcers 

Viral HSV/Zoster

Fungal (Amoebas)

 Acanthamoeba- contaminated water

25

risk factors of corneal ulcers 

Contact lens wearer

Previous eye surgery

Eye injury

Hx of herpes- Type 1 and 2

Use of topical or systemic steroids

Immune compromised

26

tx of corneal ulcer 

Aggressively with topical antibiotics

 Fluoroquinolone: Ciloxin, Ocuflox

 

Topical antifungal

Natamycin

Amphoteracin b

Fluconazole

 

Topical antiviral

Ganciclovir

 Acyclovir

 

 NO EYE PATCHES

All suspected corneal ulcers should be referred to ophthalmologist • Within 12-24 hours

27

open globe injury is considered a ___ prone wound

tetnus 

28

tx for open globe injury 

Assess any life-threatening injuries

 NPO – may need to go to OR

Do not remove any FB

Avoid any eye manipulation

Nothing in the eye

Patch

Place head at 30 degrees

Treat nausea and pain aggressively

Provide sedation

Begin IV antibiotics

Ophthalmic consult

Needs surgical repair within 24 hours

29

Sever the inferior arm of lateral canthal tendon results in 

Retrobulbar Hemorrhage

30

why MUST we identify and evacuate septal hematomas

Produces avascular necrosis if not evacuated

 

Blood collects in space between cartilage and mucoperichondrium and obstructs blood flow