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Flashcards in Eye Exam Deck (23):
0

Define: presbyopia, hyperopia, and myopia

Presbyopia: aging vision, farsightedness
Hyperopia: farsightedness
Myopia: nearsightedness

1

Unilateral vision loss (non-painful): ddx?

Unilateral vision loss (painful): ddx?

Non-painful: vitreous humor hemorrhage, macular degeneration, retinal detachment, retinal vein occlusion, central retinal artery occlusion

Painful: (cornea or anterior chamber involvement)ulcer, uvetitis, traumatic hyphema, acute glaucoma

2

Causes of diplopia (bilateral vs. unilateral)

Bilateral: brainstem or cerebellum lesion, weakness/paralysis of extraocular muscles

Unilateral: cornea or lens

3

Definition of "legally blind"

20/200

4

Causes of visual field defects

Anterior pathway (before optic chiasm): glaucoma, optic neuropathy, optic neuritis, glioma

Posterior pathway: stroke, chiasmal tumors

5

What can cause an enlarged blindspot?

glaucoma, optic neuritis, papilledema

6

What can cause Inward or outward deviation of the eyes?

Graves' disease, ocular tumors

7

What can lateral sparseness in eyebrows mean? (ddx)

hypothyroidism

8

What can cause increased or decreased tearing?

Increased: (increased production)conjunctival inflammation, corneal irritation. (impaired drainage) ectropion-turning out of eyelid, nasal lacrimal duct obstrucion

Decreased:

9

Miosis vs. Myadriasis

Miosis: constriction of the pupils
Myadriasis: dilation

10

What can cause lid lag?

hyperthyroidism

11

What can cause poor convergence?

hyperthyroidism

12

What is the difference between an Afferent Pathway defect (CNII) vs. an Efferent Pathway (CNIII)?

CNII--> loss of direct pupillary reflex, with preservation of indirect pupillary reflex
CNIII--> complete paralysis of ipsilateral pupil

13

What is an Argyll Robertson pupil? Causes?

Lack of pupillary constriction with preservation of pupillary near accommodation

Causes: syphilis, diabetes, and lupus

14

What is Adie Tonic Pupil? Cause?

large pupil caused by damage to parasympathetic ciliary ganglion

15

Facial Motor lesions (UMN vs. LMN)

UMN: Contralateral paralysis of lower face, with forehead sparing
LMN: Ipsilateral paralysis of BOTH lower and upper face

16

Uveitis

inflammation of the iris, ciliary body, and choroids
can be caused by auto-inflammatory disease or infection
blurry vision

17

How is Internuclear Ophthalmoplegia distinguished from CN III palsy?

INO: preserves convergence. Most common in Multiple Sclerosis
CNIII: "Down and out"

18

Marcus Gunn pupil

deficit in afferent light reflex (CN II, retinal detachment)--> affected pupil appears to dilate with light when switched from unaffected eye (but actually returning to baseline from constricted state)

19

Xerophthalmia

Dry eyes
can be caused by Vit. A deficiency or Sjogren Syndrome

20

Macular Degeneration

secondary to disruption of retina--> slow-onset of CENTRAL vision loss, w/ preservation of peripheral vision

21

Amaurosis Fugax (sudden unilateral vision loss) (assoc. with what?)

embolization of ophthalmic artery
Assoc. with carotid bruit and atheroscleosis

22

Glaucoma

due to increased ICP--> optic nerve atrophy
caused by decreased flow of aqueous humor through canal of Schlemm w/ or w/o narrowing of anterior chamber angle