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Flashcards in Neurology Exam Deck (24):

Which cranial nerves arise from the brain?
Where do the other cranial nerves arise from?

CN I and II
CN III-XII arise from the diencephalon and brainstem


How do you examine CN I?
What are possible causes of problems?

1st- make sure each nostril is open. With patients eyes CLOSED occlude one nostril and hold a familiar and mildly aromatic substance (vanilla, cinnamon, coffee, clove, etc.). If patient detects--> ask to identify.
PROBLEMS: Parkinson's, head trauma, smoking, aging, cocaine


How do you test CN II?

Visual acuity test, visual fields, AND fundoscopy.


What do you look for in fundoscopy? (5)

1) size ratio of arteries to veins (should be 1:3)
2) Changes in arteries (ex. narrowing)
4) cup enlargement (glaucoma)
5) palor from optic atrophy


How do you test CN III, IV, VI?

What can be cause of problems?

1) 6 cardinal directions of gaze.
2)Look for conjugate movements--> diplopia
3) nystagmus
4) convergence of eyes
5) PROBLEMS: Ptosis (CN III palsy and Myestenia gravis), abnormal pupillary constriction (CN III Palsy)


What can ptosis signify?

Intracranial aneurysm, Myestenia gravis, CN III palsy


How do you test CN V?

Motor (muscles of mastication):
Clench teeth (temporal and masseter muscles).
Lateral jaw movt (lateral pterygoids)
Test dull and light touch AND pain. Also test Corneal Reflex with cotton wisp (ask pt to remove contacts!)


Identify Sensory and Motor limbs of Corneal Reflex

Sensory: CN V
Motor: CN VII


How to test CN VII?

1) Asymmetry/ involuntary movt
2) ask to show teeth
3) close eyes tightly, cannot open
4) wrinkle forehead
5) puff out cheeks
6) tense neck muscles


How to test CN VIII?

1) whisper test
2) Weber Test (medial)
3) Rinne test (lateral)


How to test CN IX and CN X?

1) observe soft palate and pharynx as patient says "Ah"-->
2) Gag reflex
3) Ask patient "any difficulty swallowing?" (pharyngeal, palate)
4) listen to pt's voice (vocal cords-coarse voice, palate-nasal voice)


How to test CN XI?
What muscles are you testing? (2)

1) Ask pt to shrug shoulders upward against your hands
2) Ask pt to turn head to each side against your hand and observe contraction of opposite sternomastoid muscle
----> Testing Sternomastoid muscle and Trapezius Muscle


How do you test CN XII?

1) Listen to articulation of pt's words
2) observe tongue for atrophy or fasciculations
3) Ask pt to stick out tongue--> look for assymetry
4) Ask pt to stick out tongue and move side to side


What is the difference between Lethargy and Obtundation?

Lethargy: severe drowsiness, pt can be aroused by moderate stimuli and then drift back to sleep
Obtundation: Slowed response to stimuli, sleeps more than normal with drowsiness


List some symptoms of DEPRESSION

1) hopeless, slumped posture and slowed movt
2) deteriorating grooming/ personal hygeine
3) slowed speech


List symptoms of Agitated Depression

crying, pacing, hand-wringing


Describe a Manic Episode

agitated and expansive movements


One-sided neglect can be a symptom of what?

Lesion in opposite parietal cortex (usually NONdominant side)


Grooming and personal hygiene can deteriorate in patients with....

1) depression


What symptoms come with PARANOIA, MANIA, and SCHIZOPHRENIA, and DEMENTIA?

PARANOIA: anger, hostility, suspiciousness, evasiveness
MANIA: elation, euphoria, accelerated, rapid and loud speech
SCHIZOPHRENIA: flat affect and remoteness
DEMENTIA: apathy, detachment, indifference


Define: Dysarthria and Aphasia

DYSARTHRIA: defective articulation
APHASIA: disorder of language


Can a person who can write a correct sentence have aphasia?



Hearing Loss: Define difference between Conductive and Sensorineural. What tests are used?

Conductive: Impaired "air through ear" transmission
Sensorineural: damage to cochlear branch of CN VIII

Weber Test: Air and bone conduction
Rinne Test: Lateralization


Explain Weber and Rinne Hearing Test Results

Weber: Conductive Loss (sound travels toward poor ear). Sensorineural Loss (sounds travels toward good ear)

Rinne: Normal (Air-conduction is 2x as long as bone conduction). Conductive hearing loss (bone conduction longer or equal to air). Sensorineural (air conduction longer than bone conduction)