Eye Overview and Introduction to the Eye Exam - Graf and Eye Surgeries - Kugler Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Eye Overview and Introduction to the Eye Exam - Graf and Eye Surgeries - Kugler Deck (38)
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define: Emmetropia:

Visual condition in which an infinitely distant fixated object is imaged sharply on the retina (without an accommodative response)


What vision does this diagram represent?





Altering of the pathway of light from its original direction, result of passing from one medium to another



Refractive condition in which parallel rays do not focus on the retina; a deviation from emmetropia (abnormal vision)


define Myopia:

Refractive condition in which parallel rays of light entering the eye, focus in front of the retina; nearsightedness


Corrected using LASIK surgery


What vision does this diagram represent?



Lenses for myopia

  • Minus
  • Concave
  • Diverging


define Hyperopia:  

Refractive condition in which parallel rays of light entering the eye focus behind the retinafarsightedness


What vision does this diagram represent?



Lenses for hyperopia

  • Plus
  • Convex
  • Converging


define: Astigmatism

Refractive condition in which rays emanating from a single point are focused as two line images (blurry vision at all distances), generally at right angles to each other; due to unequal refraction of the incident light in different meridians

Eye becomes astigmatic when any of its refracting surfaces assumes a toroidal shape 

Eye is not perfectly round (ex: football shaped not basketball shaped)


What type of asitgmatism is this?

compound myopic astigmatism


What type of astigmatism is this?

Compound hyperopic astigmatism


What type of astigmatism is this?

Mixed astigmatism


define Presbyopia:  

Reduction in accommodative ability occurring normally with age and necessitating a plus lens addition for satisfactory seeing at near
Amplitude decreases from childhood to age 75





affects 100% of people 

treat with reading glasses

corrected surgically using: Conductive Keratoplast or Scleral Spacing Procedure (FDA trial)


define Accommodation:

Ocular adjustment for vision at various distances, by changes in shape (steepening) of the crystalline lens


define Diplopia:

Condition in which a single object is perceived as two objects rather than as one;  double vision

  • usually results from EOM imbalance
  • monocular: persists when fellow eye is covered


define: Anisometropia:

Condition of unequal refractive state for the two eyes, one eye requiring a different lens correction from the other


Six Elements or Major Categories of Eye History

  1. chief complaint
  2. medical history
  3. medications/ hypersentitivities
  4. visual and occular history
    • last eye exam
    • galsses or contacts
  5. family eye and medical history
    • cataracts, glaucoma, macular degneration
  6. vocational and recreational demands


VISUAL Symptoms of Ocular Discomfort

  • Blurred vision
  • Diplopia
  • Distortion
  • Vertigo
  • Glare/light sensitivity
  • Spots before eyes
  • Light flashes
  • Loss of vision
  • Halos around lights
  • Loss of visual field
  • Night blindness
  • Movement of field


OCULAR Symptoms of Ocular Discomfort

  • Itching or burning
  • Tenderness, soreness
  • Pain, foreign body sensation
  • Excessive lacrimation
  • Change in blink rate
  • Warm, hot, tired feeling
  • Twitching of lids
  • Mattering of eyelids



REFERRED Symptoms of Occular Discomfort

  • Headache
  • Fatigue
  • Stress


Physical Exam

Visual Acutiy: Snellen

Pupils: size, shape, equality; reaction to light (PERRLA)

Extra-ocular muscles: movements of eyes into 6 cardinal positions (H test)

Visual field: confrontation testing

Anterior Segment Exam: slit lamp or pen light look at - lids, lashes, lacrimal gland, cornea, conjuntiva, iris, lens

Direct Ophthalmoscopy: media - cornea, lens, vitreous, disc, macula, vessels


Physical Exam: Visual Acuity

  • Patients will usually get some letters correct and some incorrect as the letter size approaches their threshold
  • Non-conventional methods:  Near/Tumbling E/Pictures
  • Pg. 66 Mosby's Record line in which they miss NO letters....(Evan)


Four Cardinal Eye Complaints

  1. Changes in Vision
  2. Changes in Appearance
  3. Pain or Discomfort
  4. Trauma


Cardinal Changes: Change in Vision

• Painless or Painful

• Extent of Vision Loss

• One or Both Eyes:

  • Bilateral: neurologic etiology, not a primary problem

• Flashes or Floaters

  • Multiple – retinal tear, vitreous hemorrhage
  • Single – benign

• Rate of Onset

  • Rapid deterioration: vascular cause
  • Gradual loss: cataracts


Cardinal Changes: Pain or Discomfort

• Pain or no pain?
• Foreign body sensation
• Excessive tearing
• Itching or burning
• Light sensitivity


Cardinal Changes: Trauma

• Tetanus immunization state
• Fluid or chemical exposure
• Blunt or penetrating injury


Special Tests: Sit-Lamp Examination

Highly magnified views of: anterior segment and posterior segment