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Flashcards in Eyes Deck (9):

What is the first-line symptomatic treatment of dry eye conditions including keratoconjunctivitis sicca and sjorgens syndrome?

Ocular lubricants like artificial tears


What are the main differences between Hypromellose, Viscotears and Lacri-lube?

Hypromellose solution retained for least amount of time.
Viscotears (carbomer) the gel stays in the eye longer than the solution and Lacri-lube ointment stays on the eye the longest but can cause blurred vision (white soft parafin).


What are latanprost and bimatoprost?

They are prostaglandin analogues used in eye drops to lower intraocular pressure in open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension.


Why are prostaglandin analogues, such as latanoprost and bimatoprost preffered over topical beta-blockers for the treatment of glaucoma?

They cause fewer systemic side effects


How do prostaglandin analogues such as latanoprost and bimatoprost work?

They reduce intraocular pressure by increasing outflow of aqueous humour via the uveoscleral pathway. The exact mechanism for this is uncertain.

Elevated intraocular pressure is a risk factor for open-angle glaucoma. Glaucoma is characteristed by progressive optic nerve damage associated with visual field loss and eventually blindness.


What side effect of prostaglandin analogues can affect about one in three people?

Bimatoprost and latanoprost can cause a permanent change in eye colour by increasing the amount of melanin in stromal melanocytes of the iris.


When is it best to administer latanoprost eye drops?

Best to do so in the evening.


What is advice that should be given regarding all eye drops?

The patient should gently compress the medial canthus (nasal corner) of the eye for about 1 minute, immediately after instilling the drop. This reduces systemic absorption of the drug.


What is xalatan?

Branded latanoprost