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What do regulatory genes do?

Control the expression of a structural gene.

1

What is the structure and function of a voluntary muscle?

Bands of actin/myosin
Striated
Multinucleate

Moves bones/joints

2

What is the structure and function of involuntary muscle?

Unstriated, uninucleate, spindle shaped cells.

Controls the diameter of arteries.

3

Describe the structure and function of cardiac muscle.

Striated, uninucleate.

Pumps blood from the heart.

4

Give an example of voluntary muscle.

Diaphragm.

5

How does the fight or flight response work?

Sympathetic motor neurones stimulated.

Noradrenaline/acetylcholine neurotransmitter released at neuromuscular junctions.

Adrenaline secreted into the blood from adrenal medulla.

Adrenaline binds to receptors on target tissue, adenyl Cyclase baby.

6

How does the fight or flight response effect muscles?

Cardiac:
Heart beats faster and more forcefully.

Smooth:
Increases blood pressure, vasoconstriction.
Less blood flow to skin.

Smooth muscle in airways relaxe, airways become wider.

Pupils dilate.

Voluntary:
Diaphragm contracts faster.

More bold flows to skeletal muscles.

Glycogenolysis in muscles for priming.

Erector pill muscles raise hairs.

7

What are advantages of PCR over in vivo?

Quicker, only takes a few hours as opposed to weeks for vivo, no bacteria growth.

Uses less equipment, vivo requires agar plates.

Uses less space, DNA and enzymes more compact than whole bacterial cells. Doesn't require lots of plates to be stored.

PCR less labour intensive, leave once set. No transferring of colonies.

Can use lower quality DNA, old and forensic DNA.

8

What are advantages of in vivo over PCR?

Avoids mutations, in PCR a mutation will be replicated many times.

Less expensive, materials for growing bacteria cheap. Primers and enzymes and high temperatures expensive for PCR.

PCR has a limited size of replication, in vivo obtains complete gene.

9

What conditions need to be controlled in a fermenter?

pH and temperature effect enzyme activity, O2 levels need to be maintained so aerobic respiration can occur.

10

What enzyme converts RNA --> DNA?

Reverse transcriptase

11

What type of tree loses leaves seasonally?

Deciduous.

12

Give an example of operant conditioning.

Dog training.

13

What are advantages of immobilise enzymes?

Can be reused.
Cheaper downstream processing.
More efficient.
Not damaged.

14

Gene interactions?

Gene products are enzymes.
Multi step pathways.
Page 129

15

If there are less than 2 degrees of freedom what Is the conclusion?

No significant difference at a 95% confidence level.

16

What are features of an organism that can be used for research?

Small.
Cheap.
Short life cycle.
Common.
A sequenced genome for genetic studies.

17

What's the type of microscope that gives awesome pics?

Scanning electron microscope.

18

Why do we only have 2 alleles per gene?

Humans are diploid, and have homologous pairs of chromosomes, one on each parent.

19

What is the process of natural selection?

Selective advantage from mutation, increases breeding and survival, allele passed on to next gen, increases frequency of gene.

20

What is species richness?

No of species

21

What is species evenness?

Spread of population

22

How are polypeptides synthesised from information coded on genes?

H

23

How do polypeptides control the physical development of an organism?

Enzymes catalyse reactions, control metabolism.

Hormones and their effects.

Receptor proteins.

Regulatory genes switch structural genes on and off.

Homeobox genes control polarity and positioning Of organs.

24

Describe and explain the benefits of managements practised used in sustainable timber production.

Coppicing
Selective felling
Rotational felling
Strip felling
Replant after felling


Preserves ecosystems.
Maintains biodiversity.
Prevents soil erosion.
Less disturbance from machinery.
Pollarding so deer can't eat shoots.

25

What is coppicing?

Cutting a tree trunk close to the ground to encourage new growth.

26

What is a genotype?

Combination of alleles possessed by an organism.

27

What are the neurotransmitters of each system?

Parasympathetic - acetylcholine
Sympathetic - noradrenaline

28

What is ecology?

The interactions between organisms and the environment.

29

Explain apical dominance.

Auxins prevent side shoots/lateral buds growing.