F322 Hydrocarbons Flashcards Preview

F321 AS OCR CHEMISTRY KEYWORD DEFINITIONS > F322 Hydrocarbons > Flashcards

Flashcards in F322 Hydrocarbons Deck (20)
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1

Define what is meant by the term Saturated Hydrocarbon

A hydrocarbon with SINGLE BONDS ONLY

2

Define what is meant by the term Unsaturated Hydrocarbon.

A hydrocarbon containing at least one Carbon-Carbon DOUBLE BOND

3

Define what is meant by the term Aliphatic Hydrocarbon.

A hydrocarbon with carbon atoms joined together in straight or branched chains.

4

Define what is meant by the term Alicyclic Hydrocarbon.

A hydrocarbon with carbon atoms joined together in a RING structure

5

Define what is meant by the term Functional Group

The part of an organic molecule/atom/group of atoms or C-C bond, responsible for its chemical properties.

6

Define what is meant by the term Homologous Series

An organic series with the same functional group but with each member differing by CH2

7

Define what is meant by the term Alkane

Cn H2n+2

A homologous series WITHOUT double bonds

8

Define what is meant by the term Alkene

Cb H2n

A homologous series with DOUBLE BONDS

9

Define what is meant by the term alkyl.

An ALKANE with a hydrogen atom REMOVED.

E.g. Ch3, C2H5 or C3H7

10

Define what is meant by the term Structural Isomerism

Molecules with the same molecular formula, but a different structural formula.

11

Define what is meant by the term Stereoisomers

Isomers with the same structural formula, but with different arrangements of atoms in space

12

Define what is meant by the term Heterolytic Fission

When a COVALENT BOND breaks, giving BOTH electrons to ONE atoms creating a ➕ and a ➖ ion.

Cl-Cl ➡️ Cl+ ➕ Cl-

13

Define what is meant by the term homilolyic fission.

When a COVALENT bond breaks giving an electron to EACH ATOM, creating 2 radicals.

Cl-Cl ➡️ 2Cl•

14

Define what is meant by the term radical

A species with an unpaired electron

15

Define what is meant by the term Nucleophile.

(NUCLEUS LOVING)

An electron pair DONOR

E.g. :OH-

16

Define what is meant by the term Electrophile

(ELECTRON LOVING)

An Electron pair ACCEPTOR

17

Define what is meant by the term Elimination reaction

When a molecule is removed from another molecule forming a DOUBLE BOND

18

Define what is meant by the term Nucleophilic Substitution

When a Nucleophile (Nucleus loving) REPLACES A HALOGEN

19

Define what is meant by the term Electrophilic Substitution

When a species ADDS across a DOUBLE BOND

20

Define what is meant by the term Hydrocarbon.

An organic compound containing Carbon and Hydrogen only.