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Flashcards in F335 - MD Deck (19):

Why is a salt more soluble in water than hexane?

Water is polar, there for stronger intermolecular bonds between the salt and water can be made (ion dipole?). These are stronger than the instantaneous dipole-induced dipole IM forces between a non-polar solvent and the salt.


Name of benzene with an NO2 group?



Name of benzene with NH2 group?



Reagents, conditions and classification of: benzene to nitro benzene (NO2)

- Concentrate nitric (V) and sulphuric (V) acids.
- Below 55*C
- Substitution


Reagents, conditions and classification of: Adding aldehyde (or ketone) to a benzene ring

- Methanoyl Chloride (Or Ethanoyl Chloride, or any longer chain than 1 carbon)
- Reflux
- AlCl3


Reagents, conditions and classification of: Replacing SO2 Cl on a benzene ring with SO2 NH2

- Ammonia
- room temperature
- substitution


Reagents, conditions and classification of: NHCOCH3 on a benzene to NH2

- NaOH (aq)
- heat under reflux
- hydrolysis


Meaning of the term Pharmacophore:

The active part of the medicine molecule.


How is the Pharmacophore identified between two substances?

The part of one molecule that exactly matches a part of the other molecules


Name the technique that is used to study the shapes of molecules and the way in which they fit together:

Computer modelling


Key steps in Retrosynthesis

- Target molecule: disconnection point is identified.
- Synthon: molecules with different charges that theoretically could make the target molecules but aren't existing chemicals.
- Synthetic Equivalent: a real molecule that resembles the synthon and shares vital properties (e.g. ability to obtain a charge around a required atom of the molecule).


How do competitive enzyme inhibitors reduce the rate of an enzyme catalysed reaction?

- Prevent formation of Enzyme-substrate complexes
- As have similar structure to substrate so will fit into active site of enzyme but will not react (due to different structure).
- Less substrate can bind with enzymes so the rate of reaction is decreased.


Are competitive enzyme inhibitors temporary or permanent?

Leaves enzyme so level of inhibition relies on relative concentration of substrate and inhibitor (as they're competing)


How do Non-competitive enzyme inhibitors reduce the rate of an enzyme catalyst reaction?

- Prevent formation of enzyme- product complexes i.e. Prevent substrate from reacting to form product.
- Bind to allosteric site, distorts 3D tertiary structure of enzyme so can no longer catalyse reaction.


Are Non-competitive enzyme inhibitors temporary or permanent?

Permanent (except for in metabolic functions)


Nitrobenzene to Phenylamine conditions and reagents.

- Tin Cataylst
- concentrated HCl


Conditions and reagents for: Pheylamine to benzene with N2+ Cl-

- Nitric (III) acid (HNO2)
- dilute HCl


Conditions and reagents for Benzene to cylcohexane

- Hydrogen (gas)
- Finely divided Nickel
- 300*C, 30 atm


What is molecular recognition?

A substrate (natural neurotransmitter) has the correct size and shape to fit into a receptor, and will then form bonds at several forms to produce a response.