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1

Factors to consider

-Method of restocking
-Objectives
-Site factors
-Plant spacing
-Planting
-Protection
-Labour
-Future maintenance
-Grants
-Methods of mixing
-Species

2

Method of restocking

PLANTING
-Time consuming
-Can use local stock grown locally
-Opportunity to choose or add species
-Creates an 'even-aged' woodland
NATURAL REGENERATION
-Can be unsuccessful as there is reliance on good seed years
-More intensive subsequent management
-Much lower initial cost
-A more natural process
-Requires greater skill
-May take years to achieve adequate stocking density

3

Objectives of land owner

-Increased income?
-Biodiversity

4

Site factors

-May require preparation
DRAINAGE
-Waterlogging of soil and lack of oxygen can lead to tree death and wind damage
-Site may need to be drained
FROST
-Spring or late frost can kill young tree species, especially beech, ash and oak which are frost sensitive
DROUGHT
-Trees may be severly affected by prolonged period of drought
-Plant trees within woodlands rather than on woodland edges so they are less susceptible to damage

5

Planting method

-Notch (silt) for small scale - fast
-Pit planting for large scale - Good space for root growth but expensive
-Mechanical for large scale - speedy and consistent

6

Protection

SHELTERS
-Individual protection
-Expensive (25-75p per tree)
-Damage to trees as they emerge
-Susceptible to wind damage
FENCING
-Protects a large area
-Can be plastic mesh (up to 1.8m), dead hedging or temporary electric fencing

7

Labor

Cost of work

8

Future maintenance

-Weeding (0-4 years) = new trees may be smothered by other vegetation or invasive species
-'Beating up' (1-2 years) = carried out to replace any losses that may occur, only usually done where between 10-20% of planted trees fail
-Site maintenance (0-10 years) = includes fences, rides and ditches
-Formative pruning (5-10 years) = broadleaves
-Grey squirrel control (10-40 years)
-Brashing (15-20 years)
-Thinning (15+ years)
-High pruning (15+ years)

9

Grants

NO grant available for restocking unless trees are diseased

10

Methods of mixing

-Intimate-line mixture
-Strips
-Block mixtures
-Irregular blocks
-Avoid symmetrical shapes e.g. squares
-Reflect pattern of local landscape
-Limit yourself to 3-4 main species

11

Plant spacing

Must allow trees sufficient space to grow

12

Species

Broadleaved = 30-50p /tree
Conifers = 15-30p /tree