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Flashcards in fallacies Deck (31)
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1

Ad Hominem

attacking the person who makes the argument, rather than the structure or content of the argument

2

nobody has ever disproven the flying spaghetti monster, therefore it must exist. This demonstrates which fallacy?

appeal to ignorance

3

slippery slope

asserting that one thing will follow another, without providing sufficient evidence for the likelihood of such a consequence

4

this is an example of? "either you are with us, or you are against us."

false dilemma

5

false dilemma

assuming there are only two options, when there are actually many

6

Hasty generalisation

generalising without sufficient evidence - without considering enough cases

7

appeal to emotion (overlap with red herring)

arguing from feelings rather than facts

8

"the theory of evolution is just a theory, so we have no good reason to believe it" -----what is wrong here?

equivocation

9

fallacies are...

bad patterns

10

appeal to tradition

arguments that things have always been this way, therefore things should always be this way

11

appeal to ignorance

arguing that a conclusion is true because it has never been proven false.

12

Red Herring

drawing attention away from the argument at hand, by way of irrelevant premises

13

dentist recommending smoking filters is an example of which fallacy?

appeal to authority

14

"universities and restaurants both provide services in exchange for fees. Universities ought to be run more like restaurants." what is going on here?

faulty analogy

15

division

when one infers that something is true of the thing, because it is true of the whole things.

16

appeal to popularity

arguing that a conclusion is true because lots of people think its true

17

who are you to talk?!

arguing that a conclusion is false because the argument's constructor doesn't believe the conclusion (do as i say, not as i do)

18

the conjunction fallacy

when it is assumed that multiple specific conditions are more likely that a general one.

19

base rate fallacy

failure to take into account the rate at which something occurs when drawing conclusions from limited evidence

20

decision point

assuming a cut off point when no such point exists, or needs to exist

21

composition

when one infers that something is true of the whole from the fact that it is true of some or all parts of the whole

22

faulty analogy

argument by comparison, where the things compared are not sufficiently simmilar

23

begging the question

CIRCULARITY including the conclusion in a premise

24

equivocation

using a word in two different senses, as though it were used in one sense. i.e. use of ambiguous language intentionally.

25

strawman

giving the impression of refuting an opponent's argument, by refuting an uncharitable representation of the argument

26

appeal to authority

arguing that a conclusion is true based on the authority of the person who creates the argument

27

NZ car crash with a kid involved tv ad, example of?

appeal to emotion

28

"i always look at the clock at 11:11 - that must have some special meaning" what fallacy is commited here?

folk numeracy

29

what is this an example of: "if two hands exist, then an external world exists. Two hands do exist, therefore an external world exists"

begging the question

30

folk numeracy

we tend to notice anomaly, and ascribe special meaning to it, but really there are countless cases happening all around us and there are high chances of this.