Falls Flashcards Preview

MD2 Surgery and Anaesthesia > Falls > Flashcards

Flashcards in Falls Deck (19):
1

What side effect can statins cause that may influence risk of falls?

Rhabdomyolysis > proximal myopathy

2

What is osteomalacia?

Vitamin D deficiency in adults

3

What is the level of alkaline phosphatase in osteomalacia?

Highish

4

What is dynamic balance?

Balance when ambulant

5

Why is falling backwards, rather than on outstretched hands more likely in the elderly?

Quick reflex to break fall by extending hands not present in many elderly

6

What is sick sinus syndrome?

Degenerative disease of SA node due to fibrosis

7

How do cholinesterase inhibitors work?

Increase acetylcholine in synapse

8

What is the major side effect of cholinesterase inhibitors?

Bradycardia

9

How can falls be classified?

Due to major external factors
With impairment/loss of consciousness
Hot falls = acutely unwell but present with fall as non-specific marker of ill health
Cold falls = frail older people with multiple contributing factors

10

What are the intrinsic risk factors for falls?

Gait and balance impairment
Peripheral neuropathy
Vestibular dysfunction
Muscle weakness
Vision impairment
Medical illness
Advanced age
Impaired ADLs
Orthostatic hypotension
Dementia
Drugs

11

What are the extrinsic risk factors for falls?

Environmental hazards
Poor footwear
Restraints

12

What are some precipitating causes of falls?

Trips and slips
Acute medical illness
Drop attacks
Syncope
Dizziness

13

What sensory systems are needed for balance control?

Visual
Vestibular
Somatosensory

14

What are some dynamic balance assessments?

Movements during gait
Step test
Functional reach
Sternal push

15

What are some static balance assessments?

Step stance/single limb stance
Clinical test of sensory integration of balance (CTSIB)
Static stance

16

What are some balance tests conducted by doctors?

Romberg's test
Timed up and go
Sternal push/shoulder tug

17

What does the timed up and go test involve?

Standardised chair
Stand
Walk 3 m
Turn and walk back to chair
Sit down
Measure time it takes

18

What are some exercises that help reduce the risk of falls?

Gait, balance, and functional training
Strength/resistance
Flexibility
Tai chi, qi gong, dance
General physical activity
Endurance

19

What interventions can decrease the risk of falls?

Exercise
Home safety intervention
Primary care physician prescribing modification
Vitamin D if deficient