Flashcards in Sleep Disorders Deck (24):
What is restless leg syndrome?
- Affects younger people
- At rest
- Feels like electricity going through legs
- Most common in lumbosacral disease
- Burning sensation in legs
- Happens later on in night
What are the changes in respiratory control at sleep onset?
Loss of wakeful drive to breathe and behavioural influences
- Respiratory reflexes
- Upper airway and respiratory pump muscle tone
What are the cardinal symptoms of sleep apnoea?
Excessive daytime somnolence
What are other nocturnal symptoms of sleep apnoea?
Nocturnal choking and/or gasping
What are the daytime symptoms of sleep apnoea?
- Decreased libido
What is the most common cause of secondary hypertension?
Obstructive sleep apnoea
What are the risk factors for obstructive sleep apnoea?
Upper airway morphology, including nasal obstruction
How is obstructive sleep apnoea diagnosed?
How is apnoea defined when obstructive sleep apnoea is diagnosed?
Complete cessation of airflow for 10 sec/longer, regardless of O2 desaturation
How is hypopnoea defined when obstructive sleep apnoea is diagnosed?
30+% reduction in airflow associated with 3% O2 desaturation/alpha wave arousal from sleep
What is the management for obstructive sleep apnoea?
Surgery - major facial reconstruction
What is conservative treatment for obstructive sleep apnoea?
Sleep on side
Treat nasal congestion
Treat medical disorders; eg: hypothyroidism
When is the use of oral appliances for the treatment of obstructive sleep apnoea indicated?
Failed CPAP treatment
What are the contraindications for the use of oral appliances in the treatment of obstructive sleep apnoea?
Dentures/lack of teeth
Severe nasal obstruction
What problems can oral appliances cause?
Discomfort in teeth and jaw
Movement of teeth
What is central sleep apnoea?
Apnoeas/hypopnoeas caused by reduction in central respiratory drive
What are the causes of central sleep apnoea?
Cardia failure > Cheyne-Stokes respiration
How is central sleep apnoea due to heart failure managed?
Treat heart failure
How is idiopathic central sleep apnoea treated?
What is chronic insomnia?
Subjective dissatisfaction with sleep quality/duration
Difficulty falling asleep at bedtime
Waking up in middle of night/too early in morning
Non-restorative/poor quality sleep
Associated daytime symptoms
What disorders can contribute to insomnia?
Obstructive sleep apnoea
What are some treatment strategies for insomnia?
Treat comorbid disorders
Stimulus control therapy
What are pharmacological options for the treatment of insomnia?
Others; eg: antidepressants