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Flashcards in Family Descriptions Deck (118):
1

Shrubs and small trees, some members are mycotrophic; leaves typically alternate (spiral) and exstipulate, evergreen, coriaceous; flowers actinomorphic; calyx of typically 5 sepals; corolla of typically 5 fused petals; stamens usually 5+5, anthers inverted and opening by terminal pores; carpels usually 5 (syncarpous), ovary usually superior, ovules 1- many per carpel; fruit a loculicidal or septicidal capsule, berry, or drupe

ERICACEAE

1

Herbs, shrubs, and trees with square stems, aromatic; leaves typically opposite, usually simple; flowers zygomorphic (bilabiate, 2- lobed upper lip, 3-lobed lower lip), often in a verticillaster; calyx of 5 fused sepals; corolla of 5 fused petals; stamens 2 or 4, epipetalous; carpels 2, ovary superior, deeply 4-lobed (gynoblastic), ovules 2 per carpel; fruit a schizocarp of 4 nutlets, a drupe, or a berry

LAMIACEAE (LABIATAE)

2

Iris sp. • Sisyrinchium sp. • Crocus sp.

IRIDACEAE

2

Aquatic perennial herbs with round, solid stems; leaves linear, mostly basal, alternate (distichous), sheathing; inflorescence a dense, cylindrical spike; flowers small, unisexual (monoecious), actinomorphic; perianth of 0-3 bristle-like tepals in male flowers, many bristle or scale-like tepals in female flowers; stamens 3; carpel 1; ovary superior, ovule 1 per carpel; fruit achenelike

Typhaceae

3

Platanus (sycamore)

PLATANACEAE

3

Cornus (dogwood)

CORNACEAE

3

Achillea millefolium (yarrow) • Antennaria neglecta (field pussytoes) • Aster cordiformis (blue wood aster) • Chrysanthemum leucanthemum (ox-eye daisy) • Cichorium intybus (chicory) • Circium vulgare (common thistle) • Erigeron philadelphicus (Philadelphia fleabane) • Eupatorium perfoliatum (boneset) • Rudbeckia hirta (black-eyed susan) • Senecio aureus (golden ragwort) • S. obovatus (squaw-weed) • Solidago juncea (early goldenrod) • Taraxacum officinale (common dandelion) • Tussilago farfara (coltsfoot)

ASTERACEAE (COMPOSITAE)

4

Perennial trees, shrubs or herbs, often spiny; leaves alternate (spiral) or rarely opposite, simple or compound (pinnate or ternate); flowers actinomorphic; perianth 6-7-seriate with 3 parts per whorl, the outer 2 whorls sepaloid, the inner 4-5 petaloid, innermost 2- 3 nectiferous; stamens 6, anthers typically valvular; carpel 1, ovary superior, ovules many per ovary; fruit typically a berry

BERBERIDACEAE

4

Annual or perennial herbs, shrubs, or small trees; leaves alternate (spiral) to subopposite, usually lobed to divided or dissected, exstipu- late; flowers actinomorphic, zygomorphic, or biradial; calyx of 2 or 3 caducous sepals; corolla of 2+2 or 3+3 petals, the outer petals sometimes with a spur or sac; stamens numerous; carpels 2-many (syncarpous) ovary superior, ovules 1-many per carpel; fruit usually a capsule

PAPAVERACEAE

5

Commelina communis (Asiatic day-flower) • Tradescantia virginiana (spiderwort)

COMMELINACEAE

5

Coarse, tendril-bearing vines; leaves alternate (spiral), extipulate, simple and often palmately lobed; flowers actinomorphic, typically imperfect (monoecious or dioecious), hypanthium present; calyx of typically 5 sepals; corolla of typically 5 petals; stamens 3- 5; carpels usually 3 (syncarpous), ovary inferior, ovules usually many per ovary; fruit a berry, pepo, capsule, or samara

CUCURBITACEAE

5

Alliaria officinalis (garlic mustard) • Barbarea vulgaris (winter cress) • Brassica napus (turnip) • Capsella bursa-pastoris (Shepherd's purse) • Cardamine douglasii (purple cress) • C. pensylvanica (Pennsylvania bittercress) • Dentaria diphylla (two-leaved toothwort) • D. laciniata (cutleaf toothwort)

Brassicaceae

6

Herbs, shrubs, or trees; leaves typically alternate (spiral) or opposite, simple or compound, exstipulate; inflorescences of involucrate heads (capitula) of 1-many florets on a common receptacle surrounded by phyllaries; flowers actinomorphic or zygo- morphic, perfect or imperfect; calyx absent or represented by pappus of 2-many awns, scales, or bristles; corolla of typically 5 fused petals of 3 structural types (bilabiate, discscales, or bristles; corolla of typically 5 fused petals of 3 structural types (bilabiate, disc,ray or ligulate); stamens usually 5 and syngenesious (anthers fused into a tube through which the style grows); carpels 2 (syncarpous), ovary inferior, ovule 1 per ovary; fruit an achene or cypsela (achene derived from an inferior ovary)

ASTERACEAE (COMPOSITAE)

7

Nymphaea sp. Nuphar sp.

NYMPHAEACEAE

8

Herbs, shrubs, tree, and vines, often with milky sap; leaves alternate (spiral), opposite or whorled, simple to variously compound; flowers typically actinomorphic, imperfect (monoecious or dioecious); cyathium present in some) calyx of 5 sepals (rarely absent); corolla of 5 petals (rarely absent); stamens 1- many; carpels usually 3 (syncarpous), ovary superior, ovules 1 per carpel; fruit a schizocarp, drupe, berry, or samara

EUPHORBIACEAE

9

Herbs mainly, aromatic, often with hollow stem internodes; leaves alternate (spiral), typically pinnately or palmately compound, with sheathing bases; inflorescence usually a compound umbel; flowers actinomorphic; calyx of typically 5 sepals; corolla of typically 5 petals; stamens 5; carpels 2 (syncarpous), ovary inferior, ovules 1 per carpel; fruit a schizocarp of mericarps, supported by carpophores upon splitting

APIACEAE (UMBELLIFERAE)

10

Trees and shrubs; leaves usually opposite, exstipulate, veins often curved forward; inflorescence often with large petaloid bracts; flowers actinomorphic, usually perfect; calyx of typically 4 sepals; corolla of typically 4-5 petals; stamens usually 4-5; carpels 2-4 (syncarpous), ovary inferior, ovule 1 per carpel; fruit usually a drupe.

CORNACEAE

12

Perennial shrubs, vessel-less; leaves alternate, evergreen, simple, exstipulate; dioecious, flowers unisexual, actinomorphic; perianth of 5-8 undifferentiated parts, spiral; stamens many, laminar; carpels 5-6 (apocarpous), apically-open, ovaries superior, ovule 1 per carpel; fruit a drupecetum.

AMBORELLACEAE

12

Alnus serrulata (common alder) • Betula papyifera (paper birch) • Carpinus caroliniana (American hornbeam) • Corylus americana (American hazelnut) • Ostrya virginiana (Eastern hophornbeam)

BETULACEAE

12

Herbs, shrubs, and trees with square stems, aromatic; leaves typically opposite, usually simple; flowers zygomorphic (bilabiate, 2- lobed upper lip, 3-lobed lower lip), often in a verticillaster; calyx of 5 fused sepals; corolla of 5 fused petals; stamens 2 or 4, epipetalous; carpels 2, ovary superior, deeply 4-lobed (gynoblastic), ovules 2 per carpel; fruit a schizocarp of 4 nutlets, a drupe, or a berry

LAMIACEAE (LABIATAE)

14

Aquatic herbs, often with a milky latex; leaves floating, long-petioled, peltate; flowers solitary, floating to emergent, actinomorphic; perianth parts numerous, spirally arranged; sepals usually 4-6; petals 8-many, grading into usually laminar stamens; carpels 3-many, (syncarpous), ovules many per carpel; fruit a berry.

NYMPHAEACEAE

16

Evergreen trees or shrubs having aromatic oil cells; leaves glabrous, spiral, pellucid- punctate, exstipulate; flowers actinomorphic, perianth parts (tepals) numerous, spirally arranged (outer sepal-like, inner petal-like); stamens few-numerous; carpels numerous (apocarpous), ovaries superior, ovules 1 per carpel; fruit a follicetum (aggregate of follicles).

ILLICIACEAE

17

Trees, shrubs and herbs with milky sap; leaves typically opposite or whorled, exstipulate; flowers usually actinomorphic; calyx of typically 5 fused sepals; corolla of 5 fused petals; stamens 5, pollen grouped in pollinia; carpels usually 2 (syncarpous), ovary usually superior, ovules many per carpel; fruit a berry, drupe, or follicle.

APOCYNACEAE

18

Podophyllum peltatum (May-apple) Jeffersonia diphylla (twin-leaf)

BERBERIDACEAE

18

Annual and perennial herbs, stems usually with swollen nodes; leaves usually opposite, exstipulate; flowers actinomorphic, usually perfect; calyx typically of 5 sepals; corolla typically of 5 petals; stamens usually 5-10; carpels usually 2-5 (syncarpous), ovary superior, ovules many per ovary, usually free- central placentation; fruit usually a many- seeded capsule opening by teeth or valves; seeds with an ornamented seed coat

CARYOPHYLLACEAE

18

Cercis canadensis (redbud) • Desmodium australis (sticktight) • Lathyrus japonicus • L. latifolius (everlasting pea) • Lespedeza capitata (bushclover) • Melilotus officinalis (yellow sweetclover) • Robinia pseudoacacia (black locust) • Trifolium procumbens • T. repens (white clover)

FABACEAE (LEGUMINOSAE)

18

Trees, shrubs and herbs with milky sap; leaves typically opposite or whorled, exstipulate; flowers usually actinomorphic; calyx of typically 5 fused sepals; corolla of 5 fused petals; stamens 5, pollen grouped in pollinia; carpels usually 2 (syncarpous), ovary usually superior, ovules many per carpel; fruit a berry, drupe, or follicle.

APOCYNACEAE

19

Herbs (ours), shrubs, small trees, and lianas; leaves alternate (spiral) or forming basal rosettes; flowers usually zygomorphic; calyx of 5 sepals; corolla of 5 petals, the anterior one often spurred; stamens usually 5; carpels usually 3 (syncarpous), ovary superior, ovules 1-many per carpel; fruit a berry or loculicidal capsule, rarely a nut.

Violoaceae

19

Vines, shrubs, or small trees, often with milky sap; leaves alternate (spiral), exstipulate; flowers actinomorphic; calyx of typically 5 sepals; corolla of typically 5 fused petals; stamens usually 5, epipetalous; carpels usually 2 (syncarpous), ovary superior, ovules usually 2 per carpel; fruit usually a 4-valved capsule, berry, drupe, or nut

CONVOLVULACEAE

20

Juncus

JUNCACEAE

21

Trees, shrubs, and herbs; leaves usually opposite (decussate); flowers actinomorphic; calyx typically of 4-5 fused sepals; corolla of typically 4-5 fused petals, often hairy inside the throat; stamens usually 4-5, epipetalous; carpels usually 2 (syncarpous), ovary usually inferior, ovules 1-many per carpel; fruit a berry, loculicidal or septicidal capsule, drupe, or schizocarp

RUBIACEAE

23

Liriodendron tulipifera (tulip tree, yellow poplar) Magnolia sp. (magnolia)

MAGNOLIACEAE

25

Perennial herbs, succulent stems often with swollen nodes; leaves alternate (spiral), with closed basal sheath; flowers actinomorphic or zygomorphic; calyx of 3 sepals; corolla of 3 petals; stamens 6, or 3 with 3 staminodes, filaments often hairy; carpels 3 (syncarpous), ovary superior, ovules 1-many per carpel; fruit typically a loculicidal capsule

COMMELINACEAE

27

Anemone virginiana (thimbleweed). • Anemonella thalictroides (rue anemone) • Aquilegia canadensis (wild columbine) • Delphinium tricorne (larkspur) • Hepatica acutiloba (sharp-lobed hepatica) • Ranunculus bulbosus (bulbous buttercup) • R. recurvatus (hooked crowfoot)

RANUNCULACEAE

28

Herbs and shrubs; leaves alternate (spiral), opposite, or whorled, simple (undivided to pinnatifid; flowers actinomorphic, hypanthium present; calyx of typically 4 sepals; corolla of typically 4 petals; stamens usually 4+4; carpels usually 4 (syncarpous), ovary inferior, ovules usually many per carpel; fruit a capsule, berry, or nut

ONAGRACEAE

29

Trees or shrubs, aromatic oil glands; leaves evergreen, usually alternate; flowers actinomorphic, usually perfect; perianth of 6 tepals; stamens 12 in 4 whorls of 3, anthers with valvate dehiscence; carpel 1, ovary superior, ovule 1 per carpel; fruit a berry or drupe.

LAURACEAE

29

Cucurbita spp. • Cucumis spp Sysios

CUCURBITACEAE

30

Echium vulgare (viper's bugloss) • Mertensia virginica (Virginia bluebell)

BORAGINACEAE

31

Trees, shrubs, and woody vines; leaves usually alternate (spiral), simple, trifoliate, or pinnately compound; flowers actinomorphic, perfect or imperfect (dioecious, polygamous, or polygamodioecious); calyx of typically 5 sepals; corolla of typically 5 petals; stamens usually 5-10; carpels usually 1-3 (usually syncarpous), ovary usually superior, ovules usually 1 per carpel; fruit a drupe with typically resinous mesocarp.

ANACARDIACEAE

31

Linaria vulgaris (butter-and-eggs) • Penstemon digitalis (foxglove beardtongue) • Scrophularia spp. • Verbascum blattaria (moth mullein) • V. thapsus (great mullein)

SCROPHULARIACEAE

32

Carex sp. (sedge) • Cyperus lancastriensis (sedge) • Scirpus atrovirens (bulrush)

CYPERACEAE

33

Apocunum Asclepias

APOCYNACEAE

34

Achillea millefolium (yarrow) • Antennaria neglecta (field pussytoes) • Aster cordiformis (blue wood aster) • Chrysanthemum leucanthemum (ox-eye daisy) • Cichorium intybus (chicory) • Circium vulgare (common thistle) • Erigeron philadelphicus (Philadelphia fleabane) • Eupatorium perfoliatum (boneset) • Rudbeckia hirta (black-eyed susan) • Senecio aureus (golden ragwort) • S. obovatus (squaw-weed) • Solidago juncea (early goldenrod) • Taraxacum officinale (common dandelion) • Tussilago farfara (coltsfoot)

ASTERACEAE (COMPOSITAE)

35

Annual and perennial herbs, vines, shrubs and rarely trees; leaves alternate (spiral) or opposite; flowers actinomorphic, perfect or imperfect (dioecious, monoecious, or polygamous); perianth of typically 3-5 sepals, scarious; stamens usually 3-5; carpels usually 1-3 (syncarpous), ovary superior, ovule typically 1 per carpel; fruit a nutlet, berry, capsule, or rarely a circumscissle capsule.

AMARANTHACEAE

36

Linaria vulgaris (butter-and-eggs) • Penstemon digitalis (foxglove beardtongue) • Scrophularia spp. • Verbascum blattaria (moth mullein) • V. thapsus (great mullein)

SCROPHULARIACEAE

38

Erythronium americanum (trout lily) • Muscari botryoides (grape hyacinth) • Polygonatum biflorum (common Solomon's seal) • Smilacina racemosa (false Solomon's seal) • Trillium erectum (ill-scented trillium) • T. grandiflorum (large-flowered trillium) • Uvularia perfoliata (mealy bellwort)

LILIACEAE

38

Solanum Datura

SOLANACEAE

38

Herbs mainly, aromatic, often with hollow stem internodes; leaves alternate (spiral), typically pinnately or palmately compound, with sheathing bases; inflorescence usually a compound umbel; flowers actinomorphic; calyx of typically 5 sepals; corolla of typically 5 petals; stamens 5; carpels 2 (syncarpous), ovary inferior, ovules 1 per carpel; fruit a schizocarp of mericarps, supported by carpophores upon splitting

APIACEAE (UMBELLIFERAE)

40

Perennial (some annual) aquatic or wetland herbs with milky sap; leaves basal; flowers actinomorphic, perfect or imperfect (plants monoecious, dioecious, or polygamous); calyx of 3 sepals; corolla of 3 petals; stamens 6- many; carpels 6-many (apocarpous), ovaries superior; fruit an aggregate of achenes or follicles

ALISMATACEAE

41

Galium aparine (cleavers) • Houstonia caerulea (bluets

RUBIACEAE

42

Amaranthus sp. • Chenopodium sp.

AMARANTHACEAE

44

Illicium

ILLICIACEAE

44

Andropogon virginicus (broomsedge) • Bromus japonicus (Japanese bromegrass) • Dactylis glomerata (orchard grass) • Echinochloa crusgalli (barnyard grass) • Panicum polyanthes (many-flowered panic grass) • Poa sylvestris (Sylvan bluegrass) • Setaria viridis (green foxtail) • Sorghum halepense (Johnson grass)

Poaceae

45

Euphorbia

EUPHORBIACEAE

46

Trees or shrubs; leaves alternate (usually spiral); flowers actinomorphic, imperfect (monoecious), staminate flowers in pendulous catkins, pistillate flowers in pendulous or erect catkins; perianth of typically 1-6 sepals; corolla absent; stamens 1-many; carpels 2-3 (syncarpous), ovary inferior or superior, ovules 1-2 per carpel; fruit a nut or 2-winged samara, often enclosed in bracts

BETULACEAE

46

Herbs, shrubs, and trees, often with prickles; leaves alternate (spiral), simple or pinnately divided, exstipulate; flowers typically actino- morphic; calyx of 5 fused sepals; corolla of 5 fused petals; stamens usually 5, epipetalous, anthers often connivent; carpels usually 2 (syncarpous), ovary superior, ovules many per carpel; fruit a berry (sometimes enclosed by inflated persistent calyx), drupe, or septicidal capsule

SOLANACEAE

47

Polygonum cuspidatum (Japanese knotweed) • P. pensylvanicum (Pennsylvania knotweed) • Rumex acetosella (sheep sorrel) • R. crispus (curly dock) • R. obtusifolius (broadleaf dock)

POLYGONACEAE

48

Abutilon theophrasti (velvetleaf) • Malva neglecta (common mallow) • Tilia americana (basswood) • Sphaeralcea parvifolia

MALVACEAE

49

Annual and perennial herbs, stems round, internodes usually hollow; leaves alternate (distichous), sheathing, ligule present; flowers somewhat zygomorphic, perfect or occasionally imperfect (plants usually monoecious), subtended by 2 bracts (lemma and palea); perianth of 1-3 minute scales (lodicules); stamens usually 1-3; carpels 2-3 (syncarpous), ovary superior, ovules 1 per ovary; fruit a caryopsis (grain)

POACEAE

49

Annual or perennial herbs, shrubs, and small trees; leaves alternate (spiral), opposite, or whorled, exstipulate; flowers actinomorphic or zygomorphic; calyx of typically 5 fused sepals; corolla of typically 5 fused petals; stamens usually 5; carpels usually 3 (syncarpous), ovary superior, ovules 1-many per ovary; fruit a capsule.

POLEMONIACEAE

50

Arisaema triphyllum (jack-in-the-pulpit) Lemna sp. (duckweed)

ARACEAE

51

Ceratophyllum

CERATOPHYLLACEAE

52

Glechoma hederacea (ground-ivy) • Lamium amplexicaule (henbit) • L. purpureum (purple dead-nettle) • Mentha piperita (peppermint) • Prunella vulgaris (heal-all) • Salvia officinalis

LAMIACEAE (LABIATAE)

54

Habenaria clavellata (small green wood orchid) • Cypripedium acaule (pink lady’s slipper) • Goodyera pubescens (downy rattlesnake plantain)

ORCHIDACEAE

55

Herbs, shrubs, and small trees, with acrid juice; leaves alternate (spiral) or forming basal rosettes, palmately (trifoliate) or pinnately compound, occasionally simple; flowers actinomorphic; calyx of typically 5 sepals; corolla of typically 5 petals; stamens 5+5; carpels usually 5 (syncarpous), ovary superior, ovules 2-many per carpel; fruit a loculicidal capsule or berry

OXALIDACEAE

56

Erodium sp. (stork’s bill) • Geranium maculatum (wild geranium)

GERANIACEAE

57

Perennial and annual herbs, stems often triangular, internodes solid; leaves alternate (spiral), usually tristichous, sheathing; flowers actinomorphic, perfect or imperfect (plants usually monoecious); perianth absent or occasionally of bristles or scalelike tepals; stamens 3; carpels 2-3 (syncarpous), ovary superior, sometimes enclosed by a saclike bract (perigynium), ovules 1 per carpel; fruit an achene.

CYPERACEAE

58

Perennial herbs; leaves basal or cauline, alternate (spiral) or whorled, often sheathing at base; flowers actinomorphic to somewhat zygomorphic; perianth of 6 tepals in 2 whorls; stamens 6; carpels 3 (syncarpous), ovary superior, ovules many; fruit usually a loculicidal capsule, sometimes a berry.

LILIACEAE

59

Shrubs or herbs; leaves usually opposite, simple to deeply pinnately lobed; flowers zygomorphic; calyx of typically 4-5 sepals; corolla of typically 4-5 fused petals; stamens usually 2-4 (sometimes 5 or with staminodes), epipetalous; carpels usually 2 (syncarpous), ovary superior, ovules many per ovary; fruit a septicidal capsule, berry, or schizocarp.

SCROPHULARIACEAE

60

Herbs, shrubs, trees, and vines; leaves alternate (spiral), usually compound (pinnate, bipinnate, trifoliate); basal pulvini often present; flowers actinomorphic or zygomor- phic, usually perfect; calyx of typically 5 sepals; corolla of typically 5 free petals; stamens 5 or 10-many, filaments often brightly colored; carpel 1, ovary superior, ovules 2-many per carpel; fruit usually a legume.

FABACEAE (LEGUMINOSAE)

62

Mostly herbs, sometimes shrubs or vines; leaves alternate (spiral), simple to compound, with sheathing leaf bases; flowers usually actinomorphic and perfect; calyx of 5-8 petaloid sepals; corolla of few-many petals (rarely absent); stamens usually numerous; carpels usually numerous (apocarpous), ovaries superior, ovules usually many per carpel; fruit usually an aggregate of follicles, achenes, or berries

RANUNCULACEAE

63

Chimaphila maculata (spotted wintergreen) • Chimaphila umbellata (pipsissewa) • Kalmia latifolia (mountain laurel) • Menziesia pilosa (Allegheny menziesia) • Monotropa uniflora (Indian pipe) • Rhododendron maximum (great laurel) • R. nudiflorum (pinxter flower) • Vaccinium vacillans (late low blueberry)

ERICACEAE

64

Rhus thyphina (staghorn sumac) • R. vernix (poison sumac) • Toxicodendron radicans (poison ivy)

ANACARDIACEAE

65

Herbs, shrubs, and trees, often with prickles; leaves alternate (spiral), simple or pinnately divided, exstipulate; flowers typically actino- morphic; calyx of 5 fused sepals; corolla of 5 fused petals; stamens usually 5, epipetalous, anthers often connivent; carpels usually 2 (syncarpous), ovary superior, ovules many per carpel; fruit a berry (sometimes enclosed by inflated persistent calyx), drupe, or septicidal capsule

SOLANACEAE

66

Trees, shrubs, and herbs; leaves usually opposite (decussate); flowers actinomorphic; calyx typically of 4-5 fused sepals; corolla of typically 4-5 fused petals, often hairy inside the throat; stamens usually 4-5, epipetalous; carpels usually 2 (syncarpous), ovary usually inferior, ovules 1-many per carpel; fruit a berry, loculicidal or septicidal capsule, drupe, or schizocarp

RUBIACEAE

68

Trees or shrubs; leaves alternate (usually spiral); flowers actinomorphic, imperfect (usually monoecious); staminate flowers in catkins or heads, pistillate flowers at the base of staminate inflorescence or solitary; perianth typically of 6 tepals; stamens usually 6-12; carpels usually 3 or 6 (syncarpous), ovary inferior, ovules 2 per carpel; fruit a nut, at least partially covered by a cupule of hardened bracts.

Fagaceae

69

Oxalis

OXALIDACEAE

70

Angelica atropurpurea (purple angelica) • Daucus carota (Queen Anne's lace) • Ozmorhiza claytonii (hairy sweet cicely) • O. longostylis (smooth sweet cicely) • Thaspium barbinode (hairy-jointed meadow- parsnip)

APIACEAE (UMBELLIFERAE)

71

Shrubs, herbs or vines, often of wet habitats; leaves alternate (spiral or distichous) or basal, simple to pinnately or palmately compound; inflorescence a spadix enveloped or subtended by a single spathe; flowers actinomorphic, perfect or imperfect (monoecious); perianth absent (in imperfect flowers) or of 4-6 tepals (in perfect flowers); stamens usually 4, 6, or 8; carpels 3 (syncarpous), ovary usually superior; fruit usually a multiple of berries

ARACEAE

73

Amborella

AMBORELLACEAE

75

Opuntia (prickly pear) • Schumbergera (Christmas cactus)

CACTACEAE

76

Phlox

POLEMONIACEAE

78

Annual and perennial herbs, shrubs, vines, and trees, stems with swollen nodes; leaves usually alternate (spiral), with nodal ocrea; flowers actinomorphic, usually perfect; perianth of typically 3+3 or 5 tepals; stamens usually 3+3 or 8; carpels usually 3 (syncarpous), ovary superior, ovule 1 per ovary; fruit an achene or nutlet, often 3-sided and sometimes subtended by persistent tepals

POLYGONACEAE

79

Solanum Datura

SOLANACEAE

80

Perennial herbs; leaves large, alternate (distichous), sheathing; flowers zygomorphic; tepals 6; stamens 5 (only 1 functional), other 4 are petaloid staminodes, two of which form an anterior labellum; carpels 3 (syncarpous), ovary inferior, ovules many per carpel; fruit a capsule; seeds arillate

ZINGIBERACEAE

81

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Arecaceae

82

Perennial herbs or shrubs; leaves alternate (distichous), unifacial; flowers small to large, generally showy, actinomorphic or zygomorphic; calyx of 3 petaloid sepals; corolla of 3 petals; stamens 3; carpels 3 (syncarpous), ovary inferior, ovules 1-many per carpel; fruit a loculicidal capsule.

IRIDACEAE

83

Herbs, shrubs, or trees; leaves typically alternate (spiral) or opposite, simple or compound, exstipulate; inflorescences of involucrate heads (capitula) of 1-many florets on a common receptacle surrounded by phyllaries; flowers actinomorphic or zygo- morphic, perfect or imperfect; calyx absent or represented by pappus of 2-many awns, scales, or bristles; corolla of typically 5 fused petals of 3 structural types (bilabiate, discscales, or bristles; corolla of typically 5 fused petals of 3 structural types (bilabiate, disc,ray or ligulate); stamens usually 5 and syngenesious (anthers fused into a tube through which the style grows); carpels 2 (syncarpous), ovary inferior, ovule 1 per ovary; fruit an achene or cypsela (achene derived from an inferior ovary)

ASTERACEAE (COMPOSITAE)

84

Shrubs or herbs; leaves usually opposite, simple to deeply pinnately lobed; flowers zygomorphic; calyx of typically 4-5 sepals; corolla of typically 4-5 fused petals; stamens usually 2-4 (sometimes 5 or with staminodes), epipetalous; carpels usually 2 (syncarpous), ovary superior, ovules many per ovary; fruit a septicidal capsule, berry, or schizocarp.

SCROPHULARIACEAE

86

Trees, exfoliating bark; leaves alternate with infrapetiolar bud), usually palmately lobed and veined; flowers actinomorphic, imperfect (monoecious); calyx typically of 3-4 sepals; corolla typically of 3-4 petals, present only in staminate flowers; stamens usually 3-4; carpels usually 5-8 (apocarpous), ovaries superior, ovule 1 per ovary; fruit a multiple of densely hairy achenes in a globose head.

PLATANACEAE

87

Lindera benzoin (spice bush) Sassafras albidum (sassafras)

LAURACEAE

88

Herbs primarily; leaves alternate (spiral), exstipulate; inflorescence typically helicoid or scorpoid cyme; flowers usually actinomorphic, usually perfect; calyx of typically 5 sepals; corolla of typically 5 fused petals; stamens usually 5, epipetalous; carpels 2, ovary superior and deeply 4-lobed, ovules 2 per carpel, style gynobasic; fruit usually a schizocarp of 4 nutlets, or a 1-4 seeded drupe.

BORAGINACEAE

89

Viola

Violaceae

90

Trees, shrubs, and herbs, often with prickles or thorns; leaves typically alternate (spiral), simple to pinnately or palmately compound; flowers actinomorphic, hypanthium present; calyx of typically 5 sepals; corolla of typically 5 petals; stamens 20-many; carpels 1-many (syncarpous or apocarpous), ovaries superior or inferior; ovules 1-many per ovary; fruit a drupe, pome, hip, follicetum, achenecetum, or capsule

ROSACEAE

91

Perennial herbs, usually epiphytic; leaves alternate (spiral), forming basal rosettes in some species, often brightly colored at the base; flowers actinomorphic or slightly zygomorphic; calyx of 3 sepals; corolla of 3 petals; stamens 6; carpels 3 (syncarpous), ovary inferior to superior; fruit a septicidal capsule or berry, sometimes becoming a multiple fruit.

BROMELIACEAE

93

Herbs, with an odorous, watery sap; leaves typically alternate (spiral), often forming basal rosettes, simple or occasionally lobed to divided; flowers actinomorphic; calyx of 2+2 sepals; corolla of 4 petals (cruciate); stamens usually 6 (tetradynamous); carpels 2 (syncarpous), ovary superior, ovules 1-many per carpel; fruit a silique or silicle with a persistent septum known as a replum

BRASSICACEAE

94

Trees, shrubs, and herbs, often with stellate trichomes; leaves alternate (spiral), simple or palmately compound; flowers actinomorphic; calyx of typically 5 sepals; corolla of typically 5 valvate petals, sometimes fused at the base to the staminal column; stamens 5-many, united by their filaments; carpels usually 2- many (syncarpous), ovary usually superior, ovules 2-many per carpel; fruit usually a capsule or schizocarp of mericarps.

MALVACEAE

95

Herbs or shrubs; leaves alternate (spiral) or opposite; palmately or pinnately compound or simple; flowers usually actinomorphic; calyx of typically 5 sepals; corolla of typically 5 petals; stamens usually 10, in two whorls; carpels usually 5 (syncarpous), ovary superior, ovules usually 2 per carpel; fruit a loculicidal capsule or a schizocarp of mericarps or follicles, usually separating from a persistent beak.

GERANIACEAE

96

Galium aparine (cleavers) • Houstonia caerulea (bluets

RUBIACEAE

97

Eschscholzia californica (Mexican poppy) • Sanguinaria canadensis (bloodroot) • Corydalis flavula (yellow corydalis) • Dicentra cucullaria (Dutchman's breeches)

PAPAVERACEAE

98

Echium vulgare (viper's bugloss) • Mertensia virginica (Virginia bluebell)

BORAGINACEAE

99

Succulent shrubs or trees; leaves alternate (spiral) when present, leaf spines arising from special axillary meristems called areoles, some also possess small, trichome-like leaves called glochidia; flowers actinomorphic; perianth of numerous tepals; stamens numerous; carpels 3-many (syncarpous), ovary inferior, ovules many per carpel; fruit a berry, often spiny or bristly.

CACTACEAE

101

Arenaria serpyllifolia (thymeleaf sandwort) • Cerastium vulgatum (common mouse-ear chickweed) • Saponaria officinalis (soapwort) • Silene virginica (fire pink) • Stellaria media (common chickweed) • S. pubera (great chickweed)

CARYOPHYLLACEAE

102

Woody shrubs or trees; leaves large, alternate (usually spiral), sheathing bases, often fan- shaped or pinnately-compound, blade often pleated; inflorescence often associated with a spathe; flowers actinimorphic; tepals 6; stamens usually 6; carpels typically 3 (syncarpous or apocarpous), ovary superior, ovule 1 per carpel; fruit usually a drupe.

ARECACEAE (PALMAE)

104

Bromelia sp. • Tillandsia sp. (Spanish moss)

BROMELIACEAE

106

Typha

Typhaceae

107

Convolvulus sepium (hedge bindweed) • Ipomoea spp.

CONVOLVULACEAE

108

Trees or shrubs; leaves alternate, deciduous or persistent, stipules deciduous and leaving a stipular ring at each node; flowers solitary, actinomorphic; perianth of 6-many tepals; stamens numerous, laminar; carpels numerous (apocarpous), ovaries superior; fruit an aggregate of follicles, samaras, or berries; seeds often covered with red flesh (sarcotesta), each suspended by a threadlike funiculus.

MAGNOLIACEAE

109

Sagittaria

ALISMATACEAE

110

Tufted, perennial grass-like herbs, internodes solid; leaves alternate (spiral), mostly basal, usually tristichous, sheathing; flowers actinomorphc, usually perfect; perianth of 6 tepals; stamens usually 3-6; carpels 3 (syncarpous), ovary superior, ovules 1-many per carpel; fruit a loculicidal capsule.

JUNCACEAE

111

Vines, shrubs, or small trees, often with milky sap; leaves alternate (spiral), exstipulate; flowers actinomorphic; calyx of typically 5 sepals; corolla of typically 5 fused petals; stamens usually 5, epipetalous; carpels usually 2 (syncarpous), ovary superior, ovules usually 2 per carpel; fruit usually a 4-valved capsule, berry, drupe, or nut

CONVOLVULACEAE

112

Castanea mollisima (Chinese chestnut) • Fagus grandifolia (American beeech) • F. sylvatica (European beech) Quercus Sp.

Fagaceae

113

Convolvulus sepium (hedge bindweed) • Ipomoea spp.

CONVOLVULACEAE

114

Crataegus sp. (hawthorn) • Fragaria virginiana (Virginia strawberry) • Potentilla canadensis (Canada cinquefoil) • Prunus serotina (wild black cherry) • Rosa rugosa (rugosa rose) • Rubus sp. (raspberries and blackberries) • Spiraea latifolia (broadleaf meadowsweet)

ROSACEAE

115

Perennial or annual herbs; leaves alternate (spiral or distichous) or whorled, often somewhat leathery; flowers zygomorphic; calyx of 3 sepals; corolla of 3 petals, median petal (labellum) larger than 2 lateral petals; stamens 1-2, fused to style and stigma (forming a column), pollen grouped in pollinia; carpels 3 (syncarpous), ovary inferior, ovules many per carpel; fruit a capsule, dehiscent by 3-6 slits.

ORCHIDACEAE

116

Glechoma hederacea (ground-ivy) • Lamium amplexicaule (henbit) • L. purpureum (purple dead-nettle) • Mentha piperita (peppermint) • Prunella vulgaris (heal-all) • Salvia officinalis

LAMIACEAE (LABIATAE)

117

Oenothera spp. (evening-primrose) • Ludwigia spp. • Epilobium angustifolium (fireweed)

ONAGRACEAE

118

Perennial aquatic herbs; leaves in whorls of 3- 10, dichotomously divided; flowers actinomorphic, unisexual; perianth of 8-12 tepals; stamens numerous; carpel 1, ovary superior, ovule 1 per carpel; fruit an achene.

CERATOPHYLLACEAE