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Flashcards in Morphology Deck (78):
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Therophyte

Life form.

Annual plant.

1

Geophyte

Life form.

Perennial herb with underground perennating rootstock such as bulbs, corms, rhizomes

2

Epiphyte

Plant growing on another plant

3

Mycorrhizae

Roots with Symbiotic relationship with fungi

4

First root to develop after embryo growth

Radicle

5

Stem plus associated leaves

Shoot

6

Flower. Short tube and short limb

Rotate

7

Flower. Long tube and long limb

Salverform

8

Flower. Long tube and short limb

Tubular

9

Habit

General form of a plant
-herb, vine, liana, shrub, or tree

10

plant habitats

Aquatic (floating or submersed), terrestrial, epiphytic

11

Plant life forms

therophyte (annual), geophyte (perennial herb), epiphyte, halophyte (salt adapted), xerophyte (dry adapted), succulent (fleshy stems)

12

adventitious roots

roots arising from an organ other than the root, usually from a stem

13

taproot vs fibrous root

Taproot = primary root (radical) develops into dominant root
Fibrous = primary root soon withers and is replaced by other adventitious roots

14

Taproot becomes thickened accumulating reservoirs of high energy storage compounts

Storage root

15

adventitious roots that don't enter the soil and can absorb water and minerals from the air

Aerial roots

16

Roots of parasitic plants

haustorial roots

17

roots growing from the base of a stem (corn)

prop roots

18

roots growing up to obtain additional oxygen in swamp areas

pneumatophores

19

horizontally spreading roots, often thickened vertically to aid in support

buttress roots

20

wood

secondary xylem tissue

21

bark

secondary phloem, leftover cortex, and derivatives of the cork cambium

22

rootstock

underground stems of some perennials that function in storage and protection

23

shoot with a small amount of vertical stem tissue and a large amount of thick, fleshy, storage leaves

bulb

ex: allium (onion)

24

shoot mostly of generally globose stem tissue surrounded by some scale-like leaves

Corm

ex: Iris

25

horizontal, underground stem, typically with short internodes and with scale like leaves

rhizome

ex: ginger

26

thick, underground storage stem bearing outer buds and lacking storage leaves

tuber

27

sharp pointed stem or shoot

thorn

28

stem with long internodes that run on or just below ground

stolon

(strawberry)

29

flattened succulent stem

Cladode

Ex: prickly pear cactus

30

acaulescent

lacks an above ground stem except for a peduncle/inflorescence axis

31

caulescent

with an above ground stem

32

basally woody, apically herbaceous

suffrutescent

33

trailling or lying flat

prostrate

34

flat and rooting at the nodes

repent

35

basally prostrate and apically ascending

decumbent

36

tow or more axillary buds that are oriented sideways

Collateral buds

37

two or ore axillary buds oriented vertically

superposed buds

38

A leaf that is modified in shape and usually smaller than the major photosynthetic leaves. typically associated with flowers

Bract

39

small, non-green leaf usually for protaction

scale

40

coiled twining leaf of leaf part

tendril

41

sharp pointed leaf or leaf part

spine

stipular spine = modified stipules

42

leaf flattened side-to-side and having a left and right side, often sheathing at the base

unifacial leaf

43

central axis

rachis

44

leaflets arranged on a central axis

pinnately compound

45

odd # of leaflets

imparipinnate

46

even # of leaflets

parapinate

47

leaf attachments

petiolate, sessile, sheathing, amplexicaul, perfoliate, connate-perfoliate

48

perfect flower

both stamens and carpels
(imperfect flowers either staminate or pistillate)

49

plant with only bisexual flowers

hemaphroditic

50

Plant with only unisex flowers, both staminate and pistillate individuals on the same plant

monoecious

51

plant with only unisex flowers but each sex on separate plants

dioecious

52

polygamous

plant with both bisexual and unisexual flowers

53

no fusion of sepals

aposepalous

54

no fusion of petals

apopetalous

55

fusion of sepals

synsepalous

56

fusion of petals

sympetalous

57

urn shaped flower

urceolate

58

butterfly like flower

papilionaceous

59

bell shaped flower

campanulate

60

two lipped, generally with an upper and lower

bilabiate

61

stamens adnate to petals/corrola

epipetalous

62

two groups of stamens each connate by their filaments only
-fabaceae

diadelphous
(monadelphous one group of stamens connate by filaments)

63

anthers connate but filaments distinct

syngenesious

64

general determinate inflorescence type

cyme

65

indeterminate inflorescence type with a single axis bearing sessile flowers

spike

66

indeterminate inflorescence type with a single axis bearing pedicellate flowers

raceme

67

branched raceme; has several branched axes bearing pedicellate flowers

panicle

68

inflorescence with single axis with lateral axes and/or pedicels bearing flat topped or convex flowers (all coming to the same height)

corymb (simple of compound)

69

a raceme of cymes (grapes)

thyrse

70

determinate or indeterminate inflorescence type with the pedicels attached at one point to the peduncle

umbel

71

inflorescence with whorls at each node (sessile)

verticillaster

72

planar shapes

linear, elliptic, lanceolate, ovate (egg), obovate (upsidedown egg), cordate (heart), falcate, reniform (notched), spatulate

73

base shapes

truncate, rounded, cordate, reniform, auriculate, hastate, sagittate, oblique, peltate

74

apex shapes

acuminate, acute, obtuse, truncate, rounded, emarginate

75

margins

entire (smooth), serrate (saw), serrulate (little saw), doubly serrate, dentate (teeth), denticulate (little teeth), crenate (wavy), crenulate (little waves), spinose, praemorse, ciliate, ciliolate, filiferous

76

sand papery

scaberous

77

thick hairs bent over

strigose