Flashcards in FAR Deck (325)
How are changes in accounting principle applied?
Prior Periods adjusted
Retained Earnings adjusted
Completed Contract to % Completion
Ex: LIFO to FIFO
Would a change from Completed Contract to Percentage of Completion be a change in accounting principle- or a change of estimate?
How would it be applied?
A change of principle.
Would a change from LIFO to FIFO be a change in accounting principle or a change of estimate?
How would this change be applied?
A change in accounting principle.
How is a change in accounting estimate applied?
A change in accounting estimate is applied prospectively (going forward).
No backwards adjustment is made.
Would a change from straight line depreciation to double declining balance be a change in accounting principle or a change in estimate?
How would this change be applied?
Change in depreciation method would be a change in accounting estimate.
It is applied prospectively.
How is a correction of an accounting error made?
Cumulative effect of error gets adjusted to the beginning balances of assets and liabilities in the earliest period presented in the comparative statements.
The correction of the error must be included in the footnotes.
What are the requirements for a prior period adjustment?
Effect is Material
Is identifiable in Prior Period
Couldn't be estimated in Prior Periods
How is a change from a non-GAAP accounting method to a GAAP method recorded?
It is treated as a correction of an accounting error.
Cumulative effect of error gets adjusted to the beginning balances of assets and liabilities in the earliest period presented in the comparative statements
Correction of the error must be included in the footnotes
How does an inventory error effect the financial statements?
Effect on Ending Inventory : Effect on Net Income
If one is overstated- both overstated. If one is understated- both understated.
Misstating inventory corrects itself after TWO periods.
How is a change in entity recorded?
All prior periods presented for comparative purposes must reflect the change
Footnote disclosures must be made
Changing to Consolidated Statements
What is a serial bond?
Any bond that matures in installments
What is a term bond?
Any bond that matures on a single date
What is a debenture bond?
A bond not secured by any collateral
What is a sinking fund bond?
Cash is held in a sinking fund for repayment of bond at maturity
5 years of requirements and maturity details should be disclosed
What is the formula to calculate proceeds of a bond sale?
Present Value of the principal payment at maturity
+ Present Value of Interest Payments made
: Market Value of Bond Proceeds
How is the present value of a bond calculated?
Step 1: PV of $1 @ Yield Rate (not Stated Rate)
x Bond Face Value
Step 2: PV of an Ordinary Annuity of $1 for Term @Yield
x (Stated Rate x Face)
Which costs are included in bond issuance costs? How are they recorded?
Include Engraving; Printing; Legal; Underwriter; Registration
Debited to a deferred charge account and amortized over life of Bond using S/L
Bond Proceeds - Bond Issuance Costs : Net Bond Proceeds
Time of amortization begins when issued
How are bonds reported when classified as trading securities?
Reported at FMV with unreleased gains and losses being included in earnings
How are bonds amortized under the interest method?
Both discount and premium amortization amounts increase each year
Describe the book value method when converting from bonds to stocks.
No gain or loss recognized
APIC is the plug for the difference between the Bond's Book Value and the Par Value of the Common Stock
What is the stated rate for a bond?
Rate on the face of the bond
What is the market rate on a bond?
Rate that bonds are currently selling for
What happens when the bond's market rate is greater than the stated rate?
Bond will need to sell at a discount in order for buyers to be interested. The difference in market rate vs. the stated is made up by the buyer purchasing the bond for less than par value
What happens when a bond's market rate is less than the stated rate?
Bond will need to sell at a premium in order for buyers to be interested. The difference in market rate vs. the stated is made up by the buyer purchasing the bond for more than par value
How does accrued interest on a bond affect the purchase price?
The total cash that seller receives will be MORE than they normally would (set aside any considerations for premium or discount; they are irrelevant for this point).
Basically; the purchaser of the bonds must give the bond issuer the amount of accrued interest up front.
When does interest expense start accruing on a bond?
When the bonds are issued
How is an interest payment on a bond calculated?
Cash for payment : Stated rate x Face amount
What amount of interest is expensed on a bond interest payment?
Interest expense : effective yield x carrying value
Any difference between expense and cash payment is applied as amortization against premium/discount
What are convertible bonds? Which recording method is used?
Bonds that can be converted to stock
Book value method used if no gain or loss
Market value method used if there is a gain or loss