Flashcards in Fascism and Gender Deck (51)
What was the women's division of the Fascist party?
Fasci Femminili - Party's section for women
Women could not join the Party in any other manner
What was the growth of the Fasci Femminili from 1920-1940?
1920: 100,000 members
1940: 750,000 members
What was the Rural Housewives Section?
How many members by 1939?
Created in 1933 for peasant women in Fascist trade unions.
In 1934, it became a section of the FF
By 1939, it had 1.5 million members
What was the OMNI?
Organization for the Protection of Mothers and Children:
Created in 1925 and lasted till 1975
Offered material assistance and instruction in childcare for mothers from disadvantaged backgrounds
What services did the OMNI offer?
Nursing subsidiaries for unmarried mothers to encourage them to keep babies
Promotion of breast-feeding, creation of counselling centers for mothers, centers for infant care, nurseries and canteens for mothers, milk dispensaries and summer camps
What was an issue for the OMNI?
The funding wasn't great but it is evidence of the Fascist regime taking care of mothers and children
How did Mussolini attempt to impose Fascist view on gender?
With the creation of a Day of Mothers and Children on the 24th December
Challenged a Catholic celebration and imposing the Fascist view on it
What was the Deutscher Frauenorden?
The German Order of Women - founded by Elsbeth Zander, affiliated to the NSDAP in 1928
When was the National Socialist Women's League founded?
When was the League of German Girls founded?
1930, part of Hitler Youth from 1931
What is the German Womens Enterprise?
Founded 1933, an umbrella organisation for all co-ordinated associations
When was the Battle for Births announced? What was it?
Mussolini's Ascension Day Speech (26 May 1927)
A pronatalist campaign
What were the measures of the Battle for Births?
- Bachelor Tax: unmarried men between 25-65 due to pay (Priests, servicemen and the disabled excluded)
- Family allowances
- Birth and wedding rewards
- Condemnation of birth control: contraceptives banned
- Abortion punished (1930 penal code)
What did the Bachelor Tax demonstrate?
- Male initiative in creating families
- Choices within the private sphere became of the state interest
When were marriage loans introduced in both Germany and Italy?
- June 1933: law for reduction of employment included the promotion of marriage
-In newly wed couples, women had to leave their jobs but this was reversed in 1936 as the need to grow the economy increased
-Loans were to be repaid monthly, reductions for each birth but it was not money but vouchers to buy housewares
- introduced in 1937, following Germany
- Loans given to newly-wed, young couples no older than 26
-Paid back in monthly installments
-Reductions for each birth but also increased repayments in cases of no birth
- Jews excluded from benefits after Nov. 1938
How was female social engagement disguised?
Female social engagement disguised as seemingly "unpolitical", "traditionally feminine work", in reality was political
eg., monitoring working class and rural homes, binding people to the regime on the basis of their material needs
It was a vehicle for demonstrating social solidarity and support
Who were welfare benefits available for in Germany?
Exclusively those who were "Aryan" fit - "purging/guarding" the stock
Pronatalist policies were not disassociated from racial policies
How did the Nazis see Jews and Poles?
Nazis saw the Jews and Poles as "feminine" races - they sought "devious plots rather than masculine openness"
Many Fascists believed women should what?
Remain in their proper place: some Nazis campaigned against women smoking or wearing make-up in public - they therefore implemented repressive measures against women
What is the "New Fascist Man"?
- The Italian regime promoted and repressed diverse qualities of being a man:
- Warlike man (service in WWI or Fascist squads was a merit badge)
- Authoritative head of a large family (prolificacy a merit)
- Disciplined devotion to the Fascist cause
- Conformity to Fascist morals
- Racial consciousness (miscegenation banned)
How was employment portrayed?
Often portrayed negatively in ideology and propaganda
What did Mussolini blame for male unemployment?
Women and Mechanization
In 1934, Hitler told women what?
That there was no room for a battle of the sexes in Nazism
What did Mussolini think work meant for women?
For Mussolini, work could lead to sterility for women but was essential for women
When was legislation affecting women's employment published?
There was no government attempt to ban occupations but new legislation in 1934 meant they could not work at night or carry very heavy weights - "female minors" between 15-21 banned from work deemed too heavy or dangerous
Limits targeted mostly factory workers and their employers simply ignored it or did not implement it
What is "Latin Feminism"?
Free of Socialism and Liberalism - subordinated individual rights to tradition, family and race
What did the original Fascist Program include in Italy?
In Italy, the original Fascist Program included the right of women to vote
How did Fascism believe women could be incorporated?
Fascists believed women could be incorporated if their special needs or interests were recognised?
What was progressive about Fascism?
At a time when most conservative organisations rejected female memberships, Fascist organisations had female sections