Flashcards in Feb 13 - Diabetes Type II Deck (17):
What is characteristic of diabetes type II?
Insulin resistance and insufficient insulin
What does diabetes often result in?
Lower limb amputations
What is the definition of type II diabetes?
Diabetes that ranges from insulin resistance with relative insulin deficiency to a predominant secretory defect with insulin resistance
Symptoms of type II diabetes due to high blood sugar may include what?
Increased hunger (especially after eating)
Unexplained weight loss (even though you are eating and feel hungry)
Fatigue (weak, tired feeling)
Loss of consciousness (rare)
Name three diagnostic tests for diabetes
2hPG in 75g OGTT
What are the advantages of FPG?
Fast and easy
What are the disadvantages of FPG?
Sample not stable
Inconvenient to fast
Glucose homeostasis in single time point
What are the advantages of 2hPG in 75g OGTT?
What are the disadvantages of 2hPG in 75g OGTT?
Sample not stable
What are the advantages of A1C?
Low day-to-day variability
Reflects long term [glucose]
What are the disadvantages of A1C?
Affected by medical conditions, aging, ethnicity
Standardized, validated assay required
Not used for patients under 18, pregnant women or suspected T1DM
What are the risk factors for diabetes type II?
Race or ethnicity
Impaired glucose tolerance
Impaired fasting glucose
Hypertension (>140/90 mmHg)
Low HDL cholesterol
History of gestational diabetes
History of vascular disease
Polycystic ovary disease
What is used for glucose regulation?
Describe abnormal glucose regulation
Impaired insulin secretion
-gut hormones (GLP-1 and GLP)
Insulin resistance (muscle, liver, adipocyte)
What is prediabetes?
Defined as a state which places individuals at high risk of developing diabetes and its complications, is diagnosed by any of the following criteria: IFG, IGT, A1C
What are the goals of therapy in type II diabetes?
Reduce risk, ameliorate symptoms, reduce mortality, and improve quality of life
Set goals for glycemia, blood pressure, and lipids
Blood glucose levels
Get to the target within 3-6 months of diagnosis