Feb 13 - Diabetes Type II Flashcards Preview

Pathophysiology 1 > Feb 13 - Diabetes Type II > Flashcards

Flashcards in Feb 13 - Diabetes Type II Deck (17):
1

What is characteristic of diabetes type II?

Insulin resistance and insufficient insulin

2

What does diabetes often result in?

Lower limb amputations
Renal failure
Cardiovascular events

3

What is the definition of type II diabetes?

Diabetes that ranges from insulin resistance with relative insulin deficiency to a predominant secretory defect with insulin resistance

4

Symptoms of type II diabetes due to high blood sugar may include what?

Increased thirst
Increased hunger (especially after eating)
Dry mouth
Frequent urination
Unexplained weight loss (even though you are eating and feel hungry)
Fatigue (weak, tired feeling)
Blurred vision
Headaches
Loss of consciousness (rare)

5

Name three diagnostic tests for diabetes

FPG
2hPG in 75g OGTT
A1C

6

What are the advantages of FPG?

Established standard
Fast and easy
Single sample

7

What are the disadvantages of FPG?

Sample not stable
Day-to-day variability
Inconvenient to fast
Glucose homeostasis in single time point

8

What are the advantages of 2hPG in 75g OGTT?

Established standard

9

What are the disadvantages of 2hPG in 75g OGTT?

Sample not stable
Day-to-day variability
Inconvenient, unpalatable
Cost

10

What are the advantages of A1C?

Convenient
Single sample
Low day-to-day variability
Reflects long term [glucose]

11

What are the disadvantages of A1C?

Cost
Affected by medical conditions, aging, ethnicity
Standardized, validated assay required
Not used for patients under 18, pregnant women or suspected T1DM

12

What are the risk factors for diabetes type II?

Family history
Obesity
Physical inactivity
Race or ethnicity
Impaired glucose tolerance
Impaired fasting glucose
HbA1c 5.7-6.4%
Hypertension (>140/90 mmHg)
Low HDL cholesterol
High triglycerides
History of gestational diabetes
History of vascular disease
Acanthosis nigricans
Polycystic ovary disease

13

What is used for glucose regulation?

Insulin
Glucagon
Amylin

14

Describe abnormal glucose regulation

Impaired insulin secretion
-gut hormones (GLP-1 and GLP)
-incretin effect
Insulin resistance (muscle, liver, adipocyte)

15

What is prediabetes?

Defined as a state which places individuals at high risk of developing diabetes and its complications, is diagnosed by any of the following criteria: IFG, IGT, A1C

16

What are the goals of therapy in type II diabetes?

Reduce risk, ameliorate symptoms, reduce mortality, and improve quality of life
Set goals for glycemia, blood pressure, and lipids
Blood glucose levels
Hemoglobin A1c
Get to the target within 3-6 months of diagnosis

17

How is the initial choice of therapy determined?

It depends on glycemia
If initial A1C is below 8.5%, then start metformin or reassess in 2-3 months then decide on starting metformon
If initial A1C is equal to or above 8.5%, start metformin and consider combo therapy to achieve at least a 1.5% reduction in A1C