Feb 2 - Liver Disease: Cirrhosis Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Feb 2 - Liver Disease: Cirrhosis Deck (51):
1

What are the nonspecific symptoms of chronic hepatitis?

Anorexia
Nausea
Fatigue
Malaise

2

What are the hepatic symptoms of chronic hepatitis?

Right upper quadrant pain
Abdominal discomfort
Hepatomegaly/splenomegaly
Cirrhotic and portal hypertension symptoms absent

3

What are the stages of liver disease?

Fatty liver
-deposits of fat causes liver enlargement
Liver fibrosis
-Scar tissue forms
Cirrhosis
-Growth of connective tissue destroys liver cells

4

Cirrhosis is characterized by the replacement of the liver tissue with what?

Fibrous scar tissue
Regenerative nodules

5

What is fibrous scar tissue?

Scar tissue replaces normal healthy tissue, blocking the blood flow throughout the liver

6

What are regenerative nodules?

Nodules are lumps that occur as a result of process in which damaged tissue is regenerated

7

What happens when fibrous scar tissue and regenerative nodules replace liver tissue?

There is a loss of liver function

8

What are three types of cirrhosis?

Alcoholic cirrhosis
Postnecrotic cirrhosis
Biliary cirrhosis

9

How is alcoholic cirrhosis classified? What causes it?

It is the most common disease form
It has the most substantial loss of liver cells
It's associated with alcohol abuse

10

How is postnecrotic cirrhosis classified? What causes it?

It follows hepatitis B or C
It is an inclination for liver cancer
It is caused by chronic infections

11

How is biliary cirrhosis classified? What causes it?

Obstruction of the biliary duct system
The cause is still unknown at this time but some speculate that is immunological, making it an autoimmune disorder

12

When the liver is injured due to different causes, alterations occur where?

Cellular response
Extracellular matrix composition

13

Injury of the liver leads to what?

Activation of stellate cells
Accumulation of scar matrix
Loss of hepatocyte microvilli
Sinusoidal endothelial fenestrae
Consequently losing complete hepatic function

14

What tests are used for grading liver function?

Child-Turcotte-Pugh (CTP) Score
-incorporates albumin, bilirubin, PTT, ascites and encephalopathy
-used to predict 1 and 2 year survival
Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) Score
-used to predict 3 month survival

15

What are the three causes of hepatic fibrosis?

Immune response
Wound healing
Fibrosis inducing agents

16

What are specific symptoms/complications of hepatic fibrosis?

Ascites
Jaundice
Hepatic encephalopathy

17

What is ascites?

Excess fluid in the peritoneal cavity

18

What causes ascites?

Portal hypertension
Increased pressure in the portal vein system

19

What are the consequences of ascites?

Forces fluid out of blood vessels into abdominal cavity
Decreases liver's ability to filter blood

20

What causes jaundice?

Increased levels of bilirubin in blood and deposits in body tissue
Damaged liver cells interferes with uptake or excretion of bilirubin

21

What causes hepatic encephalopathy?

The exact cause is unknown. Decreased liver function (due to cirrhosis) means the liver cannot properly metabolize waste products. Waste products become toxic and enter the blood, travel through the CNS and to the brain (e.g., ammonia)

22

What constitutional signs and symptoms of cirrhosis?

Fatigue
Malaise
Weight loss

23

What are GI symptoms of cirrhosis?

Nausea and vomiting
Jaundic
Tender hepatomegaly

24

What are extrahepatic signs and symptoms?

Palma erythema (red palm)
Spider angiomas

25

What laboratory tests are run for hepatic fibrosis and cirrhosis diagnosis?

Bilirubin is increased
Aminotransferases - Moderate increase in AST and ALT levels (AST>ALT)
Decreased serum albumin levels

26

What type of diagnostic testing is done for the diagnosis of hepatic fibrosis and cirrhosis?

Cholangiography
CT scan
Ultrasound
Transient elastography

27

What is the gold standard for heptic fibrosis and cirrhosis diagnosis?

Liver biopsy. It is used if clinical symptoms and lab testing is inconclusive. A small sample of liver tissue is examined for scarring

28

What are three problems due to portal hypertension?

Increased pressure in the peritoneal capillaries
Portosystemic shunting of blood
Splenomegaly

29

What does increased pressure in the peritoneal capillaries lead to?

Ascites, which leads to spontaneous bacterial peritonitis

30

What does portosystemic shunting of blood lead to?

The development of collateral channels, which could lead to caput medusae, hemorrhoids and/or esophageal varices
The shunting of toxins from intestine into general circulation, which could lead to hepatic encephalopathy

31

What does spenomegaly lead to?

Anemia, thrombocytopenia and leukopenia. Thrombocytopenia can lead to bleeding

32

What are the symptoms of ascites?

Swelling and discomfort of the abdomen
Increased weight
Dyspnea
Insomnia
Trouble walking

33

How is ascites diagnosed?

Bulging flanks
Flank dullness
Abdominal ultrasound to detect small amount
Ascitic fluid is clear and straw coloured
Turbid ascites may indicate infection

34

How is ascites treated?

Restriction of salt and water (2 g of salt, 1.2 L of fluids)
Diuretics (spironolactone, furosemide) which leads to reduced aldosterone levels

35

What is the definition of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis?

When ascitic fluid builds up in the abdomen and becomes infected

36

What are the symptoms of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis?

Fever
Chills
Abdominal pain
Diarrhea
Some patients have no symptoms

37

What is spontaneous bacterial peritonitis diagnosed?

Paracentesis; ascitic fluid is tested for white blood cells and bacteria levels (if the levels are high, that indicates infection)

38

How is spontaneous bacterial peritonitis treated?

IV antibiotics (ampicillin, gentamycin)
Oral antibiotics to prevent SBP (ciprofloxacin, septra)

39

Dilation of the collateral channels develop between portal systemic veins that supply what?

The lower rectum (hemorrhoids)
The umbilical veins of the falciform ligament (caput medusae)
Esophagus (esophageal varices)

40

What is the definition of esophageal varices?

Gastric and esophagus veins dilate forming thin walled varicosities in the submucosa of the esophagus

41

Why is esophageal varices dangerous?

Cirrhotic liver function typically has insufficient production of clotting, decreased platelets in circulation (hypersplenism) and portal hypertension. As a result, bleeding is likely to occur; it can be severe (it can be fatal). Once varices bleed they tend to re-bleed. The probability that the patient will die from each bleeding is high (30-35%)

42

What are symptoms of esophageal varices?

Vomiting blood
Black and tarry stool
Dizziness or fainting
Paleness
Light-headedness
Decreased urine output

43

How are esophageal varices diagnosed?

Physical examination
-bloody or black stool on rectal exam
-low blood pressure
-rapid heart rate
Tests to determine where the bleeding is coming from and detect active bleeding include
-esophagogastroduodenoscopy
-tube through the nose into the stomach (nasogastric tube)

44

How is the goal in esophageal varices treatment?

Treatment focuses on lowering portal venous pressure to reduce blood flow to collateral channels

45

What are pharmacological treatment options for esophageal varices?

Beta-adrenergic blocking drugs (propranolol)
Long acting nitrates (to dilate)

46

What are surgical treatment options for esophageal varices?

Transjugular intrahepatic shunt (TIPS) (non surgical)
Surgical portosystemic shunt procedures

47

What is the definition of hepatic encephalopathy?

Accumulation of toxins due to damaged hepatocytes and loss of hepatocyte relationship with blood via the portal vein resulting in impaired brain function

48

What is hypersplenism? What does it result in?

Enlargement of the spleen reduces the amount of red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets in circulation. It results in anemia, leucopenia, thrombocytopenia

49

Name the different effects of portal hypertension (8)

Esophageal varices (which leads to hematemesis (throwing up blood) and melena (tarry stool))
Gastropathy (which leads to melena)
Splenomegaly
Dilated abdominal veins (caput medusae)
Ascites
Rectal varices (hemorrhoids)

50

Name the different effects of liver cell failure (12)

Coma
Fetor hepaticus (breath smells like a freshly opened corpse)
Spider nevi (radiating spots caused by estrogen)
Gynecomastia (enlarged breats in men - due to estrogen)
Jaundice
Ascites
Loss of sexual hair
Testicular atrophy
Liver "flap" (coarse hand tremor)
Bleeding tendency (decreased prothrombin)
Anemia (Macrocytic iron deficiency - blood loss)
Ankle oedema

51

Why would liver transplantation be considered?

Cirrhosis is irreversible/there is no cure.
In far advanced cirrhosis, liver transplantation often is the only option for treatment