Flashcards in Federalism Deck (13):
What is Federalism?
Federalism is a theory by which political power is divided between a national and state government
Is Federalism stated in the Constitution?
Federalism is implied not stated in the Constitution by the powers granted from the Constitution to the national government
Discussed in Article 5 of the constitution (Supremacy Clause - National government has authority over the state governments)
What powers are outlined in the Constitution?
Enumerated Powers (in Article 1,Section 8) powers that were explicitly granted to Congress
Implied Powers (in Article 1, Section 8) - powers that Congress has assumed in order to better do it's job. (Also known as the elastic clause)
Prohibited (in Article 1, Section 9) - powers prohibited to the national government
Reserved Powers - Tenth Amendment of the Constitution- powers not granted to the national government and not prohibited to state governments are reserved to the states.
Concurrent Powers - Powers held by both States and the national government
What are the strengths of Federalism in the USA?
USA is too large to be governed by a unitary system
Enables the USA to develop and balance the powers of federal and state governments
State governments are allowed to make decisions that are too difficult for the federal government to make national decisions over
Effective policies are made for the local population e.g. on education and health
What are the weaknesses of Federalism?
Constitution is unclear on the powers the states have (Reserved Powers are discussed in the Constitution)
It is more difficult to have an overall programme to keep the country financially stable
Leads to inconsistency
Leads to a lack of cooperation with central government and varying standards e.g. in education and environmental concerns
Federal &a state government competed for the most power
Why did Federalism evolve?
Improvements in communication
America's foreign policy role and world power status
Federal Govt was responsible for areas of national Govt such as foreign policy
States are soverign over areas of Govt within the states
Central &a state Govt work together in areas such as housing, each providing different resources.
Categorical grants came about often for specific purposes.
Federalism under Obama
Focused more on domestic policy
War and security again terrorism were taken care of by the federal Govt.
This impacted Washington and states
Obama expanded Medicaid under Obama's healthcare reform legislation
Higher education expenditure
$4.35 billion invested in the Race to the Top Programme to boost education in states
Federalism under Bush
Increase in Federalism due to:
Expansion of the Medicare programme
No child left behind Act passed by Congress
Is the USA still a federal state
Central government has increased in power:
increase in central power under George W Bush passed legislation from the Patriot Act, Medicare Reform & Educational Reform