Flashcards in Federation essay Deck (30)
What is federation
Federation: the establishment of a federal system of government that being the Commonwealth of Australia is one of the main reasons as to why Australia thrives today
When did federation begin
1840s, during the depression
When did federation take effect
1st of the 1st, 1901.
Why did the idea take so long to come about
Geographical Diversity, Colonial Pride and Inter-Colonial Rivalry.
Geography of Australia was so diverse that inter-colonial communication was slow, unreliable and expensive.
This constraint began to dissolve upon the invention of faster mechanical transport, particularly rail and steamships.
Most colonies gained responsible government in the 1850s
Proud of their constitutional achievement but were not willing to surrender any more power than necessary to create federation.
The colonies converted their developments in trade and commerce and they often imposed irrational trade barriers to protect their self-interest.
Smaller colonies feared that larger colonies would dominate the federation process and new federal system.
Reasons for federation
free trade, national defence, immigration, nationhood, national communication and industrial relations
due to tariffs and trading barriers trade was ineffective and inefficient. There were delays and shortages and it aggravated colonial rivalry
Free trade section 92
Because of federation, S92 was placed in the constitution, called the ‘free trade’ provision which is a prohibited power preventing federal partners from placing arbitrary trade barriers against free interstate trade. This is process is relevant today as it has created led to globalisation, our successful market economy and economic growth
Free trade today
The world is moving towards globalisation.
Free trade agreements with Japan, China, etc.
Prior to federation there were concerns over being invaded both by Indonesian forces and Russian forces (Hence fort Glanville)
Each colony had their own 'straw man' defence force but would not be able to defend their land
In fact, in the event of a broader battle, their weapons and ammunition were incompatible
National Defence S114
Because of federation our defence force is now uniform, and we are well protected. This is displayed in the Constitution in S114, defence, as an exclusive power of the Commonwealth.
Concerns were rising about the importance of cheap labour from the South Pacific islands and this fuelled unfounded fear of Asian invasion.
Workers and trade unions were concerned that imported labour would force down wage rates and lead to lower living standards for the British Colonists.
Federation allowed Australia to impose restrictive immigration policies.
An exclusive power of the commonwealth. Australia has become more multicultural although it took quite a few years after federation
the issue today is our treatment of refugees.
Federation offered the potential of a powerful central government which could set national standards in working people’s wages and conditions, whilst imposing strict restrictions on the importation of cheap labour.
Industrial relations today
Unions! Fair work Australia!
The issues concerning uniform telegraphic and postal service had generally been settled between colonies early, prior to the Australasian conventions in the 1890s.
Australian’s obsessively loyal to Britain kept their national anthem, and the Union Jack on the flags.
a national identity
The Process of federation
Initation period (1840s)
Australasian Convestions (1890s)
Corowa Conference (1993)
Colonial approval by ref (1900)
Negotiation with Brit
Initiation Period 1840s
pre-federation colonial conferences and agreements identifying the need to federate. The series of meetings, debates and influential pressure groups ended with Henry Parks calling for Constitutional Conventions in 1890.
Australasian Conventions 1890s
Held to discuss federation and draft the Constitution Bill.
The founding fathers proposed to give the Commonwealth specific legislative powers, which would be exercised concurrently with the states.
Corowa Conference 1993
Disappointed by the pace of the federation movement, Federation Leagues were established near the end of 1892.
They were non-government organizations whose memberships were often limited to native-born Australians. That is, colonists born in Australia.
Meetings were conducted in local hotels and halls and speakers were strongly supportive of federation.
Colonial approval by ref
Each of the colonial parliaments ratified the Commonwealth Constitution draft by passing legislation to conduct a colonial referendum.
In 1898, SA, NSW, VIC and TAS conducted referenda. This was unsuccessful as NSW fell short of votes required by the colony’s enabling Act.
QLD and WA did not conduct referenda because they had concerns over parts of the Constitution Bill.
Finally, after many amendments to made by the Premiers’ Conference QLD joined in 1899 and WA in 1900.
Negotiation with Brit Gov
Asked to sponsor the Constitution Bill through Imperial Parliament. The British Government were supportive of federation and approved the Constitution draft, with some amendments stating that federal parliament cannot enact a law that is contrary to British law, a provision that was already bound by the colonies and that final appeals must go to the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council in Britain.
Assented July 1900
ASSENTED by Queen Victoria on the address of Imperial Parliament on the 9th of July 1900
Proclaimed September 1900
PROCLAIMED by Queen Victoria on the advice of colonial secretary on the 17th of September 1900
Inaugurated Jan 1901
INAUGURATED on 1st of January 1901
How is it important today
the reasons that brought about federation informed our constitution, which still effects us today
the referendum that voted federation in is now our means on changing the con
Negotiations to get states to join ensured them their residual powers (DOP), protecting state sovereignty
Separation of Powers that created the three arms of government
Introduced the Con Mon and the GG who still plays an important role
United us as a country and gave us a national identity in the international community.