Flashcards in Feline Immunodeficiency Virus Deck (12)
What does it cause?
immunodeficiency in cats, and therefore associated with a variety of lesions
• NOT zoonotic
LONG latent phase before onset clinical disease
• Domestic cats world-wide, generally <5% prevalence
• More common in males than females
• Most infected cats are >5 years old – long period between infection and disease
• More common in free-roaming, and feral cats and those living in unstable colonies - more contact with cats and increased fighting.
(FELV remember is different in that it is more stable friendly colonies of cats!)
FIV predominantly shed in saliva
• Mainly by biting
- Transplacental and milk transmission less common than FeLV
- Repro transmission possible but not common
• Once infected with FIV – infected for life
1. WBC - lymphocytes are targeted. Leading to progressive reduction in CD4 and CD4:CD8 population ratio
- CD4 T-cells, suppression leads to immunodeficiency
2. macrophages, kupffer cells
4. other cell types in cell culture (sometimes)
5. The virus gradually develops-
o decreased CD4, and CD4:CD8 ratios
o decreased mitogen and antigen proliferation assays
o decreased expression of MHC II
• But cats remain clinically healthy for 3-5 years, and perhaps for life.
Clinical signs of FIV
Lesions due to immunodeficiency
1. chronic mouth infections
2. immune response isn't functioning properly so see chronic forms of an infection
3. Enlarged lymph nodes.
supportive, usually normal life expectancy.
Prevention and control
• Identify infected cats
• Prevent cats fighting – keep indoors/neuter
• Isolate infected cats
• Neuter so less aggressive
Vaccination not an option in UK
Why vaccine not option in UK but is licensed product in US
questions about efficacy
FIV so variable so protection may not translate to field
If queen positive to FIV, how does this affect the kittens?
1. queen passes antibodies to kittens via MDA
2. kittens antibody positive
3. most don't actually get virus
4. test tests for Ab so if kittens test positive retest in 6 months
What would you do with an FIV + 6-week-old kitten?
1. likely from FIV positive queen
2. If tested at 6 weeks and positive for Ab, almost 100% certain MDA which last for up to 9 weeks
3. REcommend retest at 12 weeks, if positive wait 6 months incase MDA last this long adn retest
4. If positive again, isolate for life
What would you do with an FeLV + 1-year-old clinically normal cat?
positive again then isolate for life