Flashcards in Feline Viral infection Deck (24)
Feline viruses. Name:
Feline Respiratory viruses
• Respiratory viruses – FCV and FeHV-1
• Retroviruses – Feline Leukaemia Virus and Feline Immunodeficiency Virus
• Coronavirus – FECoV and Feline Infectious Peritonitis V
• Panleucopenia – SMALL DNA VIRUS but lodt DNA polymerase so needs host
• Others = cowpox, influenza virus, Bornavirus
o Rabies (see dog lecture)
Feline Panleucopenia names
Lots of different names including:
• Feline Infectious enteritis
• Feline parvovirus
• Canine parvovirus
IS feline panleucopnia rare or common?
• Relatively rare disease as Successful vaccination
It is a parvovirus so not enveloped, stable adn ** survives a long time in the environment **
PAthogenesis of feline panleucopnia virus
1. As FPLV is a DNA virus with NO polymerase it targets cells with lots
2. Targets actively dividing cells - polymerase
= Epithelium (enteritis)
Bone marrow and lymphoid tissue
= Late gestation, neonatal cerebellum = cerebellar hypoplasia
In early pregnancy = foetal death, abortion
Clinical signs of feline panleucopenia
• Sudden death
• Intestinal Profuse diarrhoea, often vomiting too
• Pyrexia, depression, anorexia basically go into shock and die
• Cerebellar hypoplasia – wobble, can’t control fine muscle movement
• Vvvvv sick, depressed, dehydrated kitten
What does panleucopenia mean?
pan = all – leuc = WBC openia = not enough
Treatment of panleucopnia
• Interferon (not licensed cats but used, lisenced in dogs)
• Fluid therapy – as animals die of shock so this is huge!
• Antibacterial to control secondary infection (sepsis)
- WILL die if untreated
What other diseases is interferon used to treat?
1. FPLV (feline panleucopnia virus)
2. Feline leukaemia virus
3. FIP (not credited but some info on)
How to diagnose feline
• Clinical signs and history (no vaccination in 99% cases)
• Post-mortem examination – histopathology
• Serology (unless vaccinated – Antibodies, not desperately helpful as could be MDA or vaccine)
• Faecal samples for identification of virus
• PCR now
How to prevent feline panleucopnia
• Vaccination – live and inactivated
• Biosecurity – closure of kennel/cattery etc
• Elimination of virus from environment
Other feline enteric viruses
• Feline enteric coronavirus (mutates to FIPV)
o Feline astrovirus
o Feline rotavirus (much rarer than in cows and sheep)
o Feline torovirus
Has been associated with syndrome of diarrhoea and protruding third eyelid (but controversial) – no treatment, cats recover
Don't need to know this
Cow pox in cats
- what is the reservoir host?
- what time of yr seen?
- what drug to avoid?
• Reservoir hosts are small wild mammals
• Disease is mostly seen in rural hunting cats
• Most cases are seen in summer and autumn – rodent availability
• Typically starts with a single primary lesion, bitten
• Widespread secondary skin lesions often develop after 1 to 3 weeks
o most animals recover uneventfully
o Occasionally, especially in immunosuppressed cats, systemic illness may develop
o AVOID USE OF STERIODS IN AFFECTED CATS
Influenza virus H5N1 importance
Rare in cats but still notifiable as can kill humans although no present evidence cat to human
We think of influenza as a respiratory disease but in cats enteric
Domestic cats adn influenza
1. infected by contact with domestic or wild birds and possibly their droppings
2. develop severe to fatal disease
o raised body temperature
o decreased activity
o conjunctivitis and
o laboured breathing
Where do cats shed influenza virus?
respiratory and digestive tracts
• transmit the infection to other cats. CAT TO CAT
• We think of influenza as a respiratory disease but in cats enteric
Why don't you use X when treating cat with influenza?
DONT SUE STEROIDS!!!!
This suppresses the cats immune system further - can become systemically ill.
Keep infected cat indoor
Feline spongiform encephalopathy (FSE)
• Prion protein disease
• Same agent as BSE in cattle
CLincial signs of Feline spongiform encephalopathy in cats
• Behavioural changes, polyphagia, polydipsia, altered grooming habits, muscle fasiculations, drooling of saliva, altered gait
What are the core vaccines for cats?
FPV, FCV and FHV-1.
Feline Calici virus
Feline herpes virus
for initial vaccination at 8–9 weeks of age followed by a second vaccination 3–4 weeks later, and if necessary a third vaccination given between 14–16 weeks of age. Boost at one year, then every three.
o 9 weeks, 12 weeks, 15,
Core vaccinations for dogs
CDV, CAV and CPV-2.
Canine distemper virus
for initial vaccination at 8–9 weeks of age followed by a second vaccination 3–4 weeks later, and if necessary a third vaccination given between 14–16 weeks of age. Boost at one year, then every three (yr 4, 7, 10)
o 9 weeks, 12 weeks, 15,
What are the feline non core vaccines?
When should they be given?
FeLV, CPiV, Bb, CCoV, CIV, Lepto
(Feline leukaemia, Canine Parainfluenza Virus, Feline bordetellosis, canine coronavirus)
Annually as believed to have shorter duration
What does efficacy of vaccine depedn on?
1. Efficacy of kitten vaccination depends on MDA which dependent on titre in dam and ingestion colostrum
What about vaccinating pregnant queens?
• Avoid live vaccines in pregnant queens due to panlucopemia (likes to divide in rapidly dividing cells – fetus