Flashcards in Female Repro I Deck (50)
Name the four layers of the ovary from outward to inward.
1. Germinal Epithelium
2. Tunica Albuginea
What cell types make up the ovarian follicle?
Follicular cells: They make up the follicular epithelium
Ovarian follicles house germ cells (oocytes)
What hormone initiates follicle growth? sustains?
FSH stimulates aromatase synthesis in follicular cells. Aromatase converts androstenedione into estrogen.
Estrogen drives follicular cell mitosis.
How does the oocyte revieve nutrients and remove wastes??
via follicular cells
How are primary oocytes moved expelled from the center of the follicle with granulosa cells?
Granulosa cells produce fluid that forms a sac called the antrum. The antrum pushes the oocyte alongside the granulosa cells to the periphery
What separates the primary oocyte from the granulosa?
How do the primary oocyte and granulosa cells communicate?
granulosa cell filopodia reach
through the zona pellucida to contact
microvilli on the oocyte, making gap
junctions that facilitate communication
across the zona pellucida.
What features distinguish a large, viable follicle from a large atretic follicle?
Large atretic follicles have dying granulosa cells with pyknotic nuclei which slough off into the antrum.
Small atretic follicles vanish quickly
Which part of an atretic follicle develops into the corpus fibrosum? what is its consistency?
What cells produce estrogen?
What are the histological features of theluteinized granulosa cells?
-Eosinophilic cells with foamy appearing cytoplasm
- Large euchromatic nuclei
- Prominent smooth ER
- large mitochondria with tubular cristae
-Numerous lipid droplets
What are the functions of the corups luteum?
Produce progesterone and estrogen
(Progesterone stimulates the endometrium to prepare for implantation)
What are interstitial glands?
Glands in the Stroma that forms from theca interna of an atretic follicle that once produced hormone. These hormone-producing cells are in teh cortex but not associated with a follicle
What is the characteristic histological features of a hormone producing cell"
pale, eosinophilic with foamy cytoplasm and euchromatic nuclei
What are three steroid hormone-producing structures that can e found in the ovary?>
- Interstitial Glands
- Corpus Luteum
- Ovarian Follicles
What are the histological features of the corpsu albicans?
- dense collagen fibers
-appear acellular and esinophilic
How does corpus luteum, fibrosum, and albicans differ? how are they similar?
Corpus Luteum has lipochrome pigments that accumulate in luteinized granulosa cells
Corpus fibrosum is a thick, transient, collagenous scar in the basement membrane of the atretic follicle. Pyknotic nuclei previously sloughed into the antrum
Corpus albicans is also a connective tissue scar however it appears eosinophilice
What are the two cell types of the oviduct mucosal epithelium? describe their histology.
1. Ciliated Cells (pale eosinophilic cytoplasm, large euchromatic vasal nucleus, prominent apical cilia, dark staiing basal bodies at the cilia bases)
2. Secretory Cells (dark staining due to secretory products, apical surfaces proturde above the epithelial surface, resembling pegs)
What are the functions of the two cell types of the oviduct mucosal epithelium?
1. Cliated cells sweep the oocyte complex or fertilized embryos toward the uterus
2. Secretory cells
- nourish and protect gametes/embryos
- capacitate the sperm activation
What is the 3 basic components of the oviduct mucosa?
Mucosa folds, Mucosal epithelium, Lamina propria
What is the function of the lamina propria in the oviduct mucosa?
It is highly cellular, well-vascularized connective tissue. In the fmbriae, it contains smooth muscle to support fimbriae movements.
3 ways that the oviduct aids in transporting the oocyte complex or fertilized embryo to the uterus include:
1. Cilated cells of the oviduct mucosa have sweeping motion
2. Fimbriae of oviduct muscularis sweeps over the ovary surface to capture oocyte (oviduct mucularis also bends the infundibulum close to the ovary)
3. Oviduct muscularis has peristaltic contractions that propel fertilized embryos to the ovary surface
Describe the histological characteristics of the Menstrual Phase Endometrium
-Lacks a surface epithelium
-Very short glands
Describe the histological characteristics of the Proliferative Phase Endometrium
- Thick (2-3mm) (including thickened stroma)
- Surface epithelium is present (regenerates from proliferating uterine gland secretory cells)
- Uterine glands are long, straight, and narrow
- Spiral arteries are present (grow into the reformed functional layer and sprout arterioles)
- Numerous mitotic figures are present (especially in secretory cells)
Describe histological characteristics of the Secretory Phase endometrium
- Extra Thick (5-6mm)
- Glands are dilated and coiled
- Secretory product accumulated in secretory cells and gland lumens
- Prominent spiral arteries are present
Why does the functional layer shred in the menstrual phase? why not the basal layer?
Constriction of spiral arteries causes hypoxia which induces the functional layer to slough off. Hormone changes also causes loss and regrowth of the functional layer. Straight arteries supply the basal layer so they do not become hypoxic.
What is the functional layer? What supplies it?
The upper endometrium , portion closes to the lumen. It is supplied by the spiral arteries.
What is the basal layer? What supplies it?
The basal layer is the lower endometrium. It is supplied by straight arteries.
What makes the secretory phase endometrium a good environment for receiving and sustaining a developing embryo?
Glycogen rich product is secreted from secretory cells of secretory endometrium. They are able to provide nutrition for the embryo prior to and during implantation as well as dilation of uterine glands.
Also, this phase has vascular lacunae that develop and fill with blood to allow flow to the placenta in thee vent of implantation and pregnancy.