Flashcards in Female Reproduction Deck (44):
receive ova at ovulation
site of fertilization
secrete estrogen and progesterone
Estrogen purpose? (4)
sperm transport to oviduct
Progesterone purpose? (2)
preps/maintains uterus for embryo
Oogenesis step 1?
Mitosis of germ cells thru 24 wks
Oogenesis step 2?
Oogonia -> prophase I of meiosis -> oocytes
enclosed by pre-granulosa cells
development stops/holding pattern
Oogenesis step 3?
Meiosis restarts at oocyte release during ovulation
Phases of Ovarian Cycle? (3)
1) Follicular (maturing follicles)
3) Luteal (prdxn of corpus luteum)
Ovarian Cycle: Follicular phase?
granulosa cells -> proliferate ->
secrete zona pellucida ->
surrounded by theca ->
↑ estrogen -> oocyte grows ->
follicle ruptures -> ovulation
Ovarian Cycle: Luteal phase?
Last 14 days of cycle
Follicular cells become corpus luteum ->
secrete estrogen/progesterone ->
if no implant, degenerates
into corpus albicans
LH stim Theca cells -> activate chol desmolase -> cholesterol ∆ to androgens -> to granulosa cells
FSH stim granulosa cells -> activates aromatase -> androgen ∆ to estradiol
Theca and granulosa become lutheal cells -> secrete progesterone
Transport of Ovarian hormones?
Estrogen binds to sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG)
Progest binds to corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG)
Estrogen and thyroxine ↑ SHBG
Progest and androgens ↓ SHBG
Androgens converted to estrogens how?
testost/androstenedione syth by thecal cells, ∆d to estrogens by non-thecal aromatase
aromatase in granulosa cells, adipose, mm, liver
Hormonal control of Follicular Phase?
GnRH -> FSH (less)/LH(more) release
Inhibin -> FSH
Estrogen -> FSH/LH
GnRH inhibited by:
Prolactin, stress, exercise
Hormonal control of Ovulation?
Follicle produces ↑ ↑ estrogen ->
+ feedback hypothal/pituit ->
LH surge mid-cycle -> ovulation
Hormonal control of Luteal Phase?
LH surge ∆ ruptured follicle into luteal cells ->
↑ ↑ estrogen/progest synth
Progest on hypoth/pitu -> suppresses estrogen + feedback and 2nd surge
Uterine cycle phases?
1) menstrual (days 0-5)
2) proliferation (6-14)
3) secretory (15-28)
Menses always occurs when?
14 days post ovulation
(cycle > 28 days have longer proliferation phase)
End of luteal/onset follicular
Prostaglands released from uterus ->
endomet vessels constrict -> endo death ->
myometrium contractions expel
End of follicular phase
Endomet repair via ↑ estrogen
Luteum secretes prog -> vascularizes/glycogens endomet
What synthesized progesterone receptors in uterus?
Estrogen effects on mammary glands?
↑ deposits in hips/breasts
Estrogen effects on bones/Ca2+?
Ca2+ uptake into bones
Estrogen effects on skin?
pub hair growth
↑ Na+, Cl-, H2O absorb = bloating
Estrogen effects on CV?
Maintain healthy cholesterol
Progesterone effects on uterus?
(Needs estrogen stim)
Progesterone effects on cervix?
Progesterone effects on vagina?
↓ proliferation of epith layer
Progesterone effects on mammary?
↑ ductal branching
↑ lobule/alveoli development
Progesterone effects on metabolism?
↑ temp post ovulation
Progesterone effects on kidneys?
↓ Na+ reabsorp via aldosterone competition
premenst dysphoric disorder
(severe mood disorder)
Cess of cycle
Preceded by progressive ovarian fail (follicle atresia)
transition b/w normal and menopause (37ish)
Cause of Perimenopause?
Follicle pool ↓ ->
↓ inhibition -> ↑ FSH ->
accelerates follic maturation
Follicle pool ↓↓ -> ↓ estro ->
↓+ feedback -> anovulation
Cause of menopause?
Severely ↓↓↓ follicle pool ->
↓↓↓ estrogen ->
↑↑↑ LH/FSH ->
FSH > 30
No cycle 12 mo
Pituitary hormones normal
Androgens still prduced
Hot flashed caused by?
Hypothal response to ∆ in estrogen -> poor blood flow control to skin
LH-induced vasomotor effect
CV concerns w/ meno?
Vascular smooth mm has estrogen receptors ->
Mitigate vascular injury via rapid dilation
↓ estrogen causes:
Oral contraceptive mechanism of action?
Neg feedback on pitui -> Ø ovluation
↓ uterine glycogen
High dose combos
Oral contraceptive benefits?
↓CA, cysts, ectop preg, PID