Female Reproduction Flashcards Preview

Q3 Physio II Final > Female Reproduction > Flashcards

Flashcards in Female Reproduction Deck (44):
1

Oviduct purpose?

(fallopian tubes)
receive ova at ovulation
site of fertilization

2

Ovary purpose?

produce ova
secrete estrogen and progesterone

3

Estrogen purpose? (4)

ova maturation/release
2º characteristics
sperm transport to oviduct
breast development

4

Progesterone purpose? (2)

preps/maintains uterus for embryo
milk production

5

Oogenesis step 1?

Mitosis of germ cells thru 24 wks

6

Oogenesis step 2?

Oogonia -> prophase I of meiosis -> oocytes

enclosed by pre-granulosa cells

development stops/holding pattern

7

Oogenesis step 3?

Meiosis restarts at oocyte release during ovulation

8

Phases of Ovarian Cycle? (3)

1) Follicular (maturing follicles)
2) Ovulation
3) Luteal (prdxn of corpus luteum)

9

Ovarian Cycle: Follicular phase?

granulosa cells -> proliferate ->
secrete zona pellucida ->
surrounded by theca ->
↑ estrogen -> oocyte grows ->
follicle ruptures -> ovulation

10

Ovarian Cycle: Luteal phase?

Last 14 days of cycle

Follicular cells become corpus luteum ->
secrete estrogen/progesterone ->
vascularizes ->
if no implant, degenerates
into corpus albicans

11

Estrogen/Progesterone synth/secretion?

LH stim Theca cells -> activate chol desmolase -> cholesterol ∆ to androgens -> to granulosa cells

FSH stim granulosa cells -> activates aromatase -> androgen ∆ to estradiol

Theca and granulosa become lutheal cells -> secrete progesterone

12

Transport of Ovarian hormones?

Estrogen binds to sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG)

Progest binds to corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG)

Estrogen and thyroxine ↑ SHBG

Progest and androgens ↓ SHBG

13

Androgens converted to estrogens how?

testost/androstenedione syth by thecal cells, ∆d to estrogens by non-thecal aromatase

aromatase in granulosa cells, adipose, mm, liver

14

Hormonal control of Follicular Phase?

GnRH -> FSH (less)/LH(more) release

Neg feedback:
Inhibin -> FSH
Estrogen -> FSH/LH

GnRH inhibited by:
Prolactin, stress, exercise

15

Hormonal control of Ovulation?

Follicle produces ↑ ↑ estrogen ->
+ feedback hypothal/pituit ->
LH surge mid-cycle -> ovulation

16

Hormonal control of Luteal Phase?

LH surge ∆ ruptured follicle into luteal cells ->
↑ ↑ estrogen/progest synth

Neg feedback:
Progest on hypoth/pitu -> suppresses estrogen + feedback and 2nd surge

17

Uterine cycle phases?

1) menstrual (days 0-5)
2) proliferation (6-14)
3) secretory (15-28)

18

Menses always occurs when?

14 days post ovulation
(cycle > 28 days have longer proliferation phase)

19

Menstrual Phase?

End of luteal/onset follicular

Prostaglands released from uterus ->
endomet vessels constrict -> endo death ->
myometrium contractions expel

20

Proliferation Phase?

End of follicular phase

Endomet repair via ↑ estrogen

21

Secretory Phase?

Post ovulation

Luteum secretes prog -> vascularizes/glycogens endomet

22

What synthesized progesterone receptors in uterus?

endometrium

23

Estrogen effects on mammary glands?

Fat?

↑ growth

↑ deposits in hips/breasts

24

Estrogen effects on bones/Ca2+?

Close plates
Ca2+ uptake into bones
Antagonize PTH
Inhib osteoclasts

25

Estrogen effects on skin?

Kidneys?

pub hair growth

↑ Na+, Cl-, H2O absorb = bloating

26

Estrogen effects on CV?

Maintain healthy cholesterol
Arterial vasodilation
Decreases atherosclero

27

Progesterone effects on uterus?

(Needs estrogen stim)
Endometrial development
Placenta formation
↓ contractility

28

Progesterone effects on cervix?

Estrogen antagonist
↓ distention
Killer mucus

29

Progesterone effects on vagina?

Estrogen antagonist
↓ proliferation of epith layer

30

Progesterone effects on mammary?

↑ ductal branching
↑ lobule/alveoli development

31

Progesterone effects on metabolism?

↑ temp post ovulation
↑ appetite

32

Progesterone effects on kidneys?

↓ Na+ reabsorp via aldosterone competition

33

PMDD is?

premenst dysphoric disorder
(severe mood disorder)

34

Menopause?

Cess of cycle
(U) 45-55
Preceded by progressive ovarian fail (follicle atresia)

35

Climacteric is?

transition b/w normal and menopause (37ish)

36

Cause of Perimenopause?

Follicle pool ↓ ->
↓ inhibition -> ↑ FSH ->
accelerates follic maturation

Follicle pool ↓↓ -> ↓ estro ->
↓+ feedback -> anovulation

37

Cause of menopause?

Severely ↓↓↓ follicle pool ->
↓↓↓ estrogen ->
↑↑↑ LH/FSH ->
cycle stops

38

Menopause diagnostics?

FSH > 30
No cycle 12 mo
LH ↑
Pituitary hormones normal
Androgens still prduced

39

Hot flashed caused by?

Hypothal response to ∆ in estrogen -> poor blood flow control to skin

LH-induced vasomotor effect

40

CV concerns w/ meno?

Vascular smooth mm has estrogen receptors ->
Mitigate vascular injury via rapid dilation

↓ estrogen causes:
↑ injury
↑ cholesterol
↑ atheroscl/MI

41

Oral contraceptive mechanism of action?

Neg feedback on pitui -> Ø ovluation
Thick mucous
↓ uterine glycogen

42

Emergency contraceptives?

High dose combos
↓ ovulation
↓ luteum

43

Oral contraceptive benefits?

↓CA, cysts, ectop preg, PID

44

Oral contraceptive risks?

gallstones
HTN
MI
stroke
DVT
PE