Flashcards in Female Reproductive Deck (42):
what is posterior to the broad ligament?
The ovaries are located posterior to the broad ligament.
The ovaries are attached to the lateral pelvic wall by?
The suspensory ligament
What is the name of the epithelium of the surface of the ovaries?
The germinal epithelium
What is the arterial supply of the ovaries? Where does it stem from?
The ovaries are supply the ovarian arteries that arise from the abdominal aorta and ascending arches of the uterine arteries (which arise from the internal iliac artery).
Where does the right ovarian vein drains to ? how about left?
Right ovarian vein drains to IVC, and left ovarian vein drains to left renal vein.
What is the lymph drainage of the ovaries?
The lymph drainage of the ovary is to the lateral aortic nodes.
Thrombosis of the right ovarian vein can cause?
Right side hydronephrosis. Thrombosis of the right ovarian vein that constricts the ureter, since the right ovarian vein crosses the ureter to enter the IVC.
What nerve refers ovarian pain? Where do you usually feel it?
Ovarian pain is often referred down the inner thigh via the obturator nerve.
What are the uterines tubes supported by?
The uterine tubes are supported by the Mesosalpinx, which is a region of the broad ligament.
What are the four divisions of the uterine tube?
-The infundibulum: is frimbriates, and opens into the peritoneal cavity.
-The ampulla: site of fertilization
-The intramural division opens into the uterine cavity.
Where does ectopic tubal pregnancies happen?
They happen on the ampulla of the uterine tube.
What is the most common cause of female infertility?
Salpingitis: which is a bacterial infection of the uterine tube with acute inflammation or chronic inflammation, which may lead to scarring of the uterine tube, predisposing to ectopic tubal pregnancy.
Where do the testicular arteries arise from?
The abdominal aorta.
What kind of union form the testicular veins?
The testicular veins are formed by the union of the veins of the pampiniform plexus.
What small patency remains ... which causes Hydrocele of testes?
A small patency of the tunica vaginalis.
What causes varicocele?
An abnormal dilation of the pampiniform plexus and testicular vein. "Palpable bag of worms".
What are the 3 layers that Ductus deferens and epididymis have?
Inner longitudinal layer, middle circular layer, and outer longitudinal layer of smooth muscle.
Where does the artery of the ductus deferens arises from?
Superior vesical, it anastomoses with testicular artery.
What is the venous drainage of ductus deferens?
It is the testicular vein and the distal pampiniform plexus.
What is the prostate arterial supply?
The inferior vesical artery which arises from the internal iliac artery.
There are two pathways of prostatic venous drain... which ones are they and what do they lead to?
Prostatic venous plexus, goes to vertebral venous plexus-----cranial dural sinuses. This can account for metastasis to the vertebral column and brain.
Prostatic venous plexus---Internal iliac veins---- IVC, this account to metastasis of prostatic cancer to heart and lungs.
What is the penis supported by?
The penis is supported by the suspensory ligament, which arises from the linea alba and inserts into the deep fascia (Buck).
What is the arterial supply of the penis and where does it arise from?
The penis arterial supply is from the deep artery of the penis (involve in erection) and arise from the internal pudendal artery.
Where does the penis drain?
Deep dorsal vein---Prostatic venous plexus----internal iliac --- IVC.
What is the penis innervated by?
The penis is innervated via the dorsal nerve of the penis.
What nerves help in the erection of penis?
Erection of the penis is controlled by the PNS via the Pelvic Splanchnic nerves (S2 to S4), which dilate the blood vessels supplying the erectile tissue.
How is the erection of the penis maintained? what muscles are involved?
The erection of the penis is maintained by the somatic nervous system via the perineal branch of the pudendal nerve, which contacts the bulbospongiosus muscles, and ischiocavernosus muscles. This compresses the erectile tissue of the bulb of the penis and the crura of the penis and helps maintain the erection.
What nerves controlled secretion of the penis?
Secretion of the penis is controlled by the PNS via the pelvic splanchnic nerves S2 to S4.
What nerves controlled Emission of the penis?
Emission from the penis is controlled by the sympathetic nervous sytem via teh L3 and L4 lumbar splanchnic nerves and the sacral splanchnic nerves.
What nerves controlled ejaculation of the penis?
What muscles contracts for ejaculation
Ejaculation from the penis is controlled by the somatic nervous system via the pudendal nerve.
This contracts the bulbospongiousus muscle to propel sperm and fluid and relaxes teh sphincter urethrae muscle located within the deep perineal space.
Innervation of epididymis and testis?
It's the genitofemoral nerve.
What is the sympathetic innervation of the penis?
The dorsal nerve of the penis (terminal branch of the pudendal nerve)
What does the Ilioinguinal nerve innervates?
The skin at the root of the penis.
What are spermatocele?
They are harmless fluid filled sacs that form in the epididymis. Small epididymal cysts are common, particularly in men over the age of 40.
What is a phimosis?
A foreskin that is tight or has very small opening at the tip preventing it from being retraced over the head of the penis.
What formed the broad ligament?
The broad ligament is formed by two laters of peritoneum.
What innervates the vagina?
The deep perineal nerve (SNS). Pelvic splanchnic (PNS).
What innervates the pelvic diaphragm?
The pudendal nerve
what muscle from the pelvic diaghragm allows for passage of urethra and vagina?
What are the exceptions of pelvic arteries? And what is their origin?
-The ovarian artery comes from the abdominal aorta.
-Median sacral artery: posterior surface of abd. aorta.
-Superior rectal artery: direct continuation of the inferior mesenteric artery.
What are the pelvis structures mainly innervated by?
The pelvic and coccygeal spinal nerves.