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Flashcards in Female reproductive Histo Deck (63):

What is the germinal epithelium?

simple epithelial covering outer surface of the ovary


What is the tunica albuginea?

outer capsule of dense connective tissue, underlies germinal epithelium


What is the ovarian cortex?

region just deep to tunica, cellular connective tissue contains ovarian follicles


What is the ovarian medulla?

deeper region composed of loose connective tissue, blood vessels & lymphatic vessels & nerves


What is oogenesis? When does it take place?

formation of gametes in the ovaries, During early fetal development, primordial (primitive) germ cells migrate from the yolk sac to the ovaries.The germ cells differentiate within the ovaries into oogonia, Oogonia are diploid (2n) stem cells that divide mitotically to produce millions of germ cells Some develop into primary oocytes & stop in prophase stage of meiosis I


What are the different phases of follicular development? Which ones are growing follicles?

primordial, Primary (preantral), secondary (antral), Graafian (mature), ovulation; preantral and antral


What is the make-up of primordial follicles?

Reside just beneath tunica albuginea, large, eccentric nucleus and abundant cytoplasm, Single layer of flattened (squamous) follicular cells, Surrounding basal lamina


What is the make-up of early primary follicles?

Follicular cells proliferate, become cuboidal, Ooctye secretes GAGs and glycoproteins—forms zona pellucida, Follicles move deeper into ovarian cortical stroma


What is the make-up of late primary follicles?

Follicle cells proliferate & form stratified epithelium (stratum granulosum) and are now called granulosa cells.Stromal cells form connective tissue sheath (theca folliculi), Theca interna--cuboidal secretory cells, fibroblasts, collagen, small vessels, Theca externa--smooth muscle & collagen
Oocyte maturation & formation of protease containing cortical granules


What I the make-up of secondary follicles?

Granulosa cells secrete fluid, Fluid filled cavities form in stratum granulosum (now 6-12 cell layers thick), Cavities coalesce to form single cavity or antrum, Antrum contains liquor folliculi, rich is hyaluronan, Eccentic oocyte has reached maximum size, Theca interna and theca externa become more distinct


What is the make-up of the graafian follicle?

Large,crescent shaped antrum lined by several layers of granulosa cells, Mound of granulosa cells (cumulus oophorus) projects into antrum, Oocyte suspended in antrum, surrounded by corona radiata
Cumulus eventually loosens, corona radiata becomes single layer, Thecal layers more prominent, actively secrete hormones, Oocyte completes meiosis I & enters meiosis II


What are the steps of ovulation?

Graafian follicle beneath surface of ovary, bulging, Protease-mediated weakening of follicular wall, Follicular fluid pressure, Contraction of smooth muscle in thecal layer, Blood flow to overlying germinal epithelium stops (stigma), Stigma ruptures, Oocyte surrounded by corona radiata & associated cumulus cells forcibly expelled, Fimbrae of the uterine tube direct oocyte into the uterine tube


What is the fate of the oocyte after ovulation?

Oocyte is fertilized or degenerates in uterine tube, Fertilization triggers completion of meiosis II by oocyte


What is atresia? What does it involve for primordial or primary follicles? Late or mature follicles?

apoptosis; shrink and degenerate at same time; Death of granulosa cells and subsequent loss of oocyte, Infiltration of granulosa layer by neutrophils & macrophages, Sloughing of granulosa cells into antrum, Hypertrophy of theca interna, Follicular collapse


What are the sections of the fallopian tube?

Infundibulum-open, funnel-shaped portion near ovary, fimbriae are moving finger-like processes, sweep ovum into uterine tube, Ampulla-central region, site of fertilization, Isthmus-narrowest portion, adjacent to uterus, Uterine (intramural) segment-continuous with uterine cavity


What are the histological features of the three layers of the fallopian tube?

mucosa = ciliated columnar epithelium (moves ovum) with non-ciliated, secretory peg cells (provide nutrients), muscularis = thick, inner circular & outer, thinner longitudinal smooth muscle
•peristalsis helps move ovum to the uterus, serosa = outer serous membrane of mesothelium and thin connective tissue layer


What do the cilia in the fallopian do?

help move egg toward the uterine


What is the function of the secretory cells in the epithelium of the fallopian tube?

PEG cells; secrete fluid that provides nutrition for the gametes


What changes in the fallopian tube epithelium throughout the cycle?

Epithelial hypertrophy & atrophy, Height of epithelium, Change in ratio of ciliated cells to peg cells


What are the different parts of the uterus?

fundus, body, isthmus & cervix, Interior contains uterine cavity accessed by cervical canal (internal & external os)


What are the three layers of the uterus?

endometrium—inner mucosa (epithelium; stroma; endometrial glands), myometrium–-thick, muscular layer (3 layers of smooth muscle), perimetrium---outer serous layer, loose connective tissue part of visceral peritoneum, becomes broad ligament


What are the histologic features of the endometrium?

simple columnar epithelium, stroma and endometrial glands; stratum functionalis: shed during menstruation, stratum basalis: replaces stratum functionalis each month


What is the makeup of the myometrium?

3 layers of smooth muscle, Middle layer rich in large blood vessels (stratum vasculare)


What are the histological features of perimetrium?

Part of visceral peritoneum, Simple squamous epithelium, connective tissue


What are the histological features of stratum functionales?

simple columnar epithelium, (secretory & ciliated cells), cellular endometrial stroma, endometrial (uterine) glands, tubular, few branches


What is the makeup of the blood supply to the uterus?

Uterine arteries branch as arcuate arteries and encircle myometrium, Arcuate arteries branch into radial arteries-penetrate into myometrium, Straight & spiral branches penetrate to the endometrium, spiral arteries supply the stratum functionalis capillary beds & lacunae (dilated segments), straight arteries supply stratum basalis


What happens to the endometrium during proliferative phase?

Epithelial cells proliferate, migrate to cover surface, Stromal cell proliferation, Spiral arteries length
Glands have narrow lumen, straight or slightly wavy
Stratum functionalis regenerated, endometrium thickened


What happens to the endometrium during the secretory phase?

Endometrium becomes edematous, thicker, Glands enlarge, corkscrew shaped, Lumens sacculate, fill with secretions (glycogen), Hypertrophy, little proliferation, Spiral arteries lengthen, more coiled, reach surface, Stromal cells “decidualize”-large, rounded cells


What happens to the endometrium during the menstrual phase?

Periodic contraction of spiral arteries causing ischemia, Reduced glandular secretion, Endometrial shrinkage, Less edema, Extended contraction of spiral arteries, Disruption of epithelium, Sloughing of tissue & bleeding
Continues until only stratum basalis remains


What happens during implantation?

Trophoblast cells over embryoblast invade the endometrium and become cytotrophoblast-mitotically active inner cell layer and syncytiotrophoblast-non-mitotic, invasive syncytium


What makes up the chorion?

cytotrophoblast, syncytiotrophoblast, extraembryonic somatic mesoderm


What is decidualization?

Entire stratum functionalis affected, Stromal cells differentiate into large, round decidual cells, Initially,uterine glands enlarge, more coiled, Later, glands flat & thin


What are the three regions of decidua?

Decidua basalis, Decidua capsularis, and Decidua parietalis; location of decidua basalis in body of uterus-future site of placenta


What is the trophoblastic lacunae?

vascular space in syncytiotrophoblast, Maternal sinusoids anastomose with lacunae, Differential pressure establishes directional blood flow


What causes expansion of mesoderm & blood vessel?

Proliferation of cytotrophoblasts


What makes the primary chorionic villi?

cytotrophoblast cords invading lacunae


What makes the secondary chorionic villi?

chorionic mesemchyme invades primary villi


What makes the tertiary chorionic villi?

vascularization of secondary villi


What makes up the fetal side of the placenta?

Chorionic villi over decidua basalis contribute to placenta (chorion frondosum or villous chorion), Project from chorionic plate, Fetal blood enter placenta via pair of umbilical arteries, exits via umbilical vein, mass of connective tissue


What is the flow of maternal blood through the placenta?

Maternal blood enters via spiral arteries, flows into intervillous space, passes over villi-nutrient/waste
exchange occurs, Drains into endometrial vein, Notice anchoring villi--make contact with maternal tissue


What is the histology of the chorionic villi In the term placenta?

Syncytiotrophoblast layer: nuclei appear irregular, cuboidal epithelium-like, Clusters of nuclei and Nuclei-poor region, Cytotrophoblasts—few remain deep to syncytiotrophoblasts, More abundant earlier in pregnancy, Connective tissue stroma:
Mesenchymal cells, fibroblasts, smooth muscle cells, macrophage-like, antigen-presenting cells (Hofbauer cells), fetal blood vessels


What are the regions of the cervix?

ectocervix, endocervix, and transformational zone


Where is the ectocervix? What are the histological features?

projects into vagina; stratified, squamous epithelium


What are the histological features of the endocervix?

glandular columnar epithelium


What is the transformation zone of the cervix?

abrupt transition between Ectocervix and endocervix


What is the vagina?

tubular (4-inch long) fibromuscular canal lined with mucous membrane; between urinary bladder and rectum, from cervix to vestibule, orifice partially closed with membrane (hymen)


What is the make-up of the inner mucosal layer of the vagina?

Numerous transverse folds (rugae), Stratified, squamous nonkeratinized epithelium, Connective tissue papillae from lamina propria project in epithelium


What is the make-up of the middle muscular layer of the vagina?

2 intermingled smooth muscle layers, Outer longitudinal and inner circular, allows considerable stretch


What is the make-up of the outer adventitial layer of the vagina?

Inner dense connective tissue, many elastic fibers (stretch), Outer loose connective tissue, blends with adjacent adventitia of surrounding tissue


What is the make-up of epithelium of the vaginal mucosa?

stratified squamous, nonkeratinized (see nuclei), No glands, Epithelium produces glycogen (acidic pH)


What is the make-up of the lamina propria?

Cellular, loose connective tissue, Elastic fibers under epithelium, Deeper dense connective tissue adjacent to muscularis, Many lymphocytes & leukocytes, increases during menstruation


What is mons pubis?

elevation of subcutaneous adipose tissue, covered by skin and coarse pubic hair; cushions the pubic symphysis


What makes up the labia majora?

two large, longitudinal folds of skin covering adipose tissue, Outer surface covered with pubic hair, sebaceous & sweat glands, Thin layer of smooth muscle, homologous to the scrotum


What makes up the labia minora?

Medially two smaller folds of skin, devoid of pubic hair and fat, many blood vessels & elastic fibers, large sebaceous glands, homologous to skin of penis


What is the clitoris?

erectile tissue and nerves located at the anterior junction of the labia minora


What is the make up of the vestibule? Where is it?

Stratified squamous epithelium, numerous glands; between labia minora


What are mammary glands? What type of epithelium?

Modified sweat glands that produce milk (lactation); tubuloalveolar, apocrine glands in subcutaneous adipose tissue; milk-secreting glands open into lactiferous ducts at the nipple; single layer of columnar/cuboidal epithelium, stratified squamous near the duct opening, Contractile myoepithelial cells surround ducts and alveoli


What are cooper's ligaments?

suspensory ligaments suspend breast from deep fascia of pectoral muscles


What is the lactiferous sinus and where is it located? what type of epithelium?

each duct has dilated portion beneath the areola; cuboidal epithelium


What are the histological features of the
“inactive” mammary gland?

glandular structure is sparse & mostly ductal, few lymphocytes, abundant connective tissue, many adipocytes, Ductal lumens small/absent, contain little/no secretions, Each lobule surrounded by loose connective tissue, Slight changes during menstrual cycle, secretory cells increase in height, Ductal lumens may be seen, small amount of secretions


What are the pregnancy induced changes in
tubuloalveolar structure of mammary gland

Decrease in connective tissue, adipose tissue, Infiltration of plasma cells, lymphocytes, eosinophils, Proliferation of glands & myoepithelial cells,Increase in ductal branching, Alveoli (spherical outcroppings) develop, Appearance of alveoli variable, Lipid droplets accumulate in apical cytoplasm, Secretions accumulate in ducts and alveoli


What are the histological features of mammary gland in late pregnancy?

Little connective tissue or adipose tissue, Proliferation of glands, Alveoli developed, but appearance is variable, Secretions accumulate in ducts and alveoli, Plasma cell infiltration


What are thelLactation induced changes in
tubuloalveolar structure of mammary gland?

Similar to late pregnancy, Alveoli more uniform, larger alveolar lumens, Secretions:milk proteins (exocytosis), lipids (apocrine secretion)