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Flashcards in Female Reproductive System Deck (44)
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How do ovarian malignant tumors spread?


What is the most common germ cell tumor of the ovary?

Most common = benign cystic teratoma

lined with hairy skin, dermoid cysts


Compare benign and malignant ovarian germ cell tumors.

When teratomas are left in place, the skin and other tissues of its wall may gradually undergo malignant transformation.


List the most common sex cord stromal tumors of the ovary.

Granulosa cell

Theca cell

Sertoli-Leydig cell


Compare granulosa cell tumors with thecomas and Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors.

Granulosa: solid tumor, hormonally inactive or produce estrogen, small (benign) or large (malignant), slow growth

Thecoma: always benign, solid tumors, secrete estrogens

SL: solid tumors, secrete androgens and cause virilization, benign or malignant


What is Krukenberg tumor?

Metastasis from carcioma of the stomach that produces bilateral enlargement of the ovaries


Explain the various forms of infertility.

Ovum-related: immature, inferior quality

Sperm-related: varying quality, no living sperm, or not enough, not mobile

Genital organ-related: PID

Systemic factors: antibodies to sperm or ova, etc


What are the most common sites of implantation in ectopic pregnancy?

Fallopian tube is the most common site, but can occur ont he ovary or the peritoneal surface.


Compare placenta accreta and placenta previa.

Accreta >> deep penetration of the placental villi into the wall of the uterus


Previa >> implantation of the zygote in the lower segment of the uterus


What is the difference between complete and incomplete abortion?

complete = fetus and placenta are expulsed

incomplete = expulsion of some fetal parts and placenta, while retaining others


Describe the pathologic features of gestation trophoblastic disease.

An abnormality of placentation, leading to tumor-like changes.

The trophoblast (epithelial lining) consists of two cell types: cytotrophoblastic and syncytiotrophoblastic

Benign = hydatidiform mole

Malignant = choriocarcinoma



Compare complete and incomplete hydatiform mole.

Complete: arndogenesis

Incomplete: two sperms fertilize oocyte


What is choriocarcinoma, and which hormone does it secrete?

In 50% of cases arises from preexisting complete mole

Highly invasive and secrete HCG

*if invades the veins, mets to lung, liver, and brain

RESPONDS to methotrexate


Discuss the pathogenesis and list clinical features of toxemia of pregnancy