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Flashcards in FERGU anatomy Deck (24):
1

Pain sensation in bladder

due to spasm/distention - mostly parasympathetic (ant. abdominal wall, perineum, genitals)

2

Cystocele

loss of bladder support due to damage to perineal muscles
herniation of bladder into vaginal wall
can occur due to damage from childbirth

3

Ectopic vesicae

absence of anterior abdominal wall, pubic bones, and anterior wall of urinary bladder results in trigone & openings of ureters being visible

4

Prostatic urethra

3-4 cm
widest
midline ridge = urethral crest, bordered by urethral sinuses - ducts of prostate drain into these sinuses
seminal colliculus - ejaculatory duct drains here

5

Pudendal artery

off of internal iliac

6

Pronephros

1st 6 cervical somites
a few tubules --> induce formation of pronephric duct
grows down through thorax/abdomen, becomes mesonephric duct

7

Mesonephros

functional in first trimester
~ 70 tubules/side
grows down on each side to the cloaca = vas deferens
some from mesonephric kidney becomes rete testis

8

Metanephros

5th week
Uretic bud grows posteriorly from mesonephric duct into surrounding mesoderm

9

Polycystic kidney disease

failure of tubules to fuse with CDs

10

paramesonephric ducts

Mullerian ducts, appear as Wolffian ducts disappear

11

Bladder

develops from urogenital sinus + allantois
Allantois connected with umbilicus - becomes ligament
mesoderm covered by endoderm

12

Renal agenesis

absent kidney development
can occur due to abnormal Wolffian duct, ureteric bud or metanephric mesenchyme
true agenesis = ipsilateral ureter and hemitrigone also absent
Contralateral kidney undergoes compensatory hypertrophy
common - missing ipsilateral vas deferens, Mullerian duct problems
15% have vesicourethral reflux (VUR)

13

Duplication anomalies

of ureters due to abnormal ureteric bud
can cause ureterocele = bag-like dilation of ureter, can cause obstruction
UTI, pain, VUR

14

Horseshoe kidney

fusion anomaly
metanephric mesenchyme not separated during development
can be associated with UPJ
often gets hooked on inferior mesenteric artery

15

Testicular descent

2nd month
migrates and sits at internal inguinal ring - 4th month
into scrotum - 7th month
cryptorchidism = undescended testicle

16

Male/female differentiation

week 9

17

Male developing factor

SRY gene on Y chromosome
testes produce: androgens & Mullerian inhibiting factor
navicular fossa = glans of penis caniculation

18

UPJ

ureteropelvic junction
abnormal vessel development
leads to hydronephrosis
Tx: surgical repair
laproscopic, endo-urological, open urological

19

Posterior urethral valves

membranous fold in posterior urethra --> obstruction
affects kidney & lungs
only seen in male

20

VUR

abnormal intravesical ureter that is too short, due to abnormal ureteric bud
pyelonephritis, renal dysplasia and damage
most common lower Urinary tract congenital anomaly
Dx: voiding cystourethrogram
Tx: surgical repair (endoscopic, open surgery)

21

Cryptorchidism

failure of testes to descend into scrotum through inguinal canal
3rd trimester
may descend spontaneously on their own after birth
abdominal scarring, abnormal SRY gene on Y chromosome
androgen-dependent

Risk factors: mother taking hormone replacements, pesticides
associated with sub-fertility and testicular cancer

Corrected by: orchiopexy - placement of testes in scrotum
surgical/laproscopically
sperm production improves, risk of testicular cancer drops
done by 12 mths of age

22

Congenital adrenal hyperplasia

enzymatic deficiency cause overproduction of androgens from adrenal gland
no negative feedback from adrenal gland
excessive androgen --> virilization of external genitalia on girls, no effect on internal

23

Hypospadia

abnormal development of urethral folds and genital tubercle
urethral meatus opens proximal to glans
incomplete foreskin and chordee (ventral penile curve)
can't urinate standing up, can't inseminate
Tx: reconstructive surgery

24

Histology of urethra

Prostatic/membranous: urothelium
penile: stratified columnar
navicular fossa: stratified squamous