Imaging Flashcards Preview

FERGU > Imaging > Flashcards

Flashcards in Imaging Deck (25):
1

US - pros

1st line for hematuria
good info about renal parenchyma
excellent for hydronephrosis + renal stones
renal & bladder anatomy
blood flow (doppler)
no iv contrast

2

US- cons

poor ureteral anatomy
operator-dependent
patient factors

3

CT KUB pros

best for renal calculi
identifying stones - can even seen uric acid (not on X-ray)
renal edema, Collecting system, perirenal edema and inflammation
fast
renal stones, masses, renal trauma
rule out AAA, appendicitis

4

CT KUB cons

no functional information
expensive

5

MRI pros

soft tissue/vasculature
contrast less nephrotoxic
allergy to CT contrast

6

MRI cons

long exam time
CI: pacemakers, metal

7

IV pyelogram pros

X-rays before and after contrast
renal obstruction, malignancy, injury to collecting system, congenital abnormalities
functional/anatomical
presence of stones, obstructions, congenital abnormalities
sensitive for TCC

8

IV pyelogram cons

slow
several hours if obs present
nephrotoxic contrast
invasive
less sensitive for RCC
mostly replaced by CT
used in pregnancy

9

CT + contrast pros

"one stop shop" for hematuria
good for renal masses
good for stones
renal masses, infarcts, abscesses
functional info
better evaluation of parenchyma than non-contrast

3 phases:
1) non-contrast
2) nephrographic - contrast in parenchyma
3) delayed - contrast in renal calyx (excreted)

enhancement within masses = solid mass, not a cyst

10

CT + contrast cons

can obstruct stones with contrast
contrast is nephrotoxic
higher radiation dose than CT-KUB

11

Retrograde pyelogram pros

when CT contrast required but allergic

12

Retrograde pyelogram cons

invasive cystoscopy

13

Radiographic features of cysts

differentiate from solids using CT, US, MRI

14

Radiographic features of solid masses - benign

oncocytoma: stellate central scar on CT
- difficult to differentiate from malignant masses

angiomyolipoma - fat on CT

15

Radiographic features - RCC

US shows solid mass, Doppler - blood flow
CT/MRI :
- characterize
- enhancement wiht IV contrast
- spread
often enhance with contrast
invade renal vein, up into IVC

16

Radiographic features - TCC

US
- may show mass in bladder
- may show hydronephrosis if obstruction present
- won't show mass in ureters
- Doppler for blood flow
CT-IVP/retrograde pyelogram/cystoscopy
- evaluate renal pelvis, ureters and bladder

17

Radiographic features - lymphoma

multiple, bilateral lesions in kidney

18

Radiographic features - calculi

KUB plain film - show based on Ca content
US: bright echogenic with acoustic shadow
high density focus on CT KUB

19

Calcium calculi on imaging

75%
radio-opaque on KUB, CT KUB
Ca-oxalate/phosphate

20

Calcium struvite imaging

15%
radioopaque on KUB and CT KUB
"infective stones"

21

Cystine calculi imagining

2%
less-radioopaque on KUB

22

Uric acid stone imaging

10%
radiolucent, opaque on CT KUB

23

Xanthine stone imagining

rare
radiolucent, opaque on CT KUB

24

Indinovir stone imagining

HIV antiretroviral
radiolucent on KUB and CT KUB

25

Matrix stone imagining

radiolucent
opaque on CT KUB
infection stone