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Flashcards in Fetal growth Deck (57)
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1

Define fetal growth

Increase in mass that occurs between end of embryonic period and birth

2

Simplest way of determining size of infant

Palpating maternal abdomen to find symphysis fundal height

3

What is symphysis fundal height

Distance between pubic bone and top of the uterus

4

Why is symphysis fundal height vulnerable to a variety of errors

Data can be lower than actually is due to:
Wrong last period date
Baby is lying transversely
Oligohydramnios

Data can be higher due to:
Maternal obesity
Wrong last period date
Multiple pregnancy

5

What is oligohydramnios

Low amniotic fluid levels

6

Complications assocaited with baby being larger than expected on SFH

Molar pregnamcy
Fibroids
Polyhydramnios
Large baby

7

What is a molar pregnancy

Formed from a previous implanted failed blastocyst that has become a mass

8

What 4 things are combined to guve estimated fetal weight

Biparietal diameter
Head circumfrence
Adbdominal circumfrence
Femur length

9

What is done with ultrasound data

The changes in each parameter are plotted and growth over time is visualised- they are expected to follow a centile showing a steady increase in growth

10

Why are centiles used totrack growth of fetus'

Allows compensation for different sized babies and shows their development is normal

11

Differences in growth velocity across term

14-15 wks= 5g/day
20wks= 10g/day
33wks= 30g/day
>34wks= growth rate drops

12

Characterisation of normal fetal growth

Cellular hyperplasia (increased cell numbers): 4-20 weeks
Hyperplasia and hypertrophy (increased cell size): 20-28 weeks
Hypertrophy dominates: 28-40 weeks

13

What is main key factor in fetal weight gain

Hypertrophy as most weight gain occurs in final trimester

14

Issue of using last menstrual period to date pregnancy

Confounding factors include irregular length of periods, endometrial bleeding that is abnormal, oral contraceptive use and breastfeeding
Also people who have had unplanned pregnancies are much less likely to be aware of their most recent period

15

What is best practice to date pregnancy now

Crown rump length

16

How does poverty affect fetal growth

Less educated about use of things such as alcohol use during pregnancy
More likely to have disease which can affect baby
More likely to have a baby at younger age

17

Ideal age for pregnancy for healthy fetus environment

16-35

18

Problem with having baby over 35

More inclined to have long pregnancy-> increased risk of death to mother and fetus
More likely to have preterm labour
Increased risk of downsyndrome

19

Problem with havng baby under 16

More likely to have preterm labour which can lead to neurological issues such as irritability, crying and trouble sleeping which affect coping of mother

20

Effects of weed use during pregnancy

Slows fetal growth
Premature delivery
Low birth weight
Delivery complications
Can lead to addiction

21

Effects of heroin use during pregnancy

Interrupted development
Stillbirths
Preamture births
GI issues
Large head

22

Effects of cocaine use during pregnancy

Smaller brain so learning issues
Stillborn
Premature

23

Effects of alcohol use during

Facial abnormalities
Affects brain and CNS development -> behavioural issues and retardation

24

Symptoms of fetal alcohol syndrome

Brain abnormalities
Cognitive deficits
Distictive facial features

25

Effects of nicotine use on feal blood supply during

Nicotine constricts blood vessels reuding oxygen supply to baby-> still births

26

Effects of nicotine use on baby if survives

Low weight
increased asthma risk due to resp effects

27

Effect of low iron diet on fetus

Anaemia

28

Effect of low calcium diet on fetus

Poor bone and teeth develpment

29

Effect of low protein diet on fetus

Retardation
Smaller fetus

30

Effect of maternal depression on fetus

Slower fetal growth
Associated with maternal cortisol levels