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Flashcards in Field Trips Deck (23):

South IVB

-Lots of anthropogenic impact (trailer park, equestrian activity, ball field ===Gentrification!)
- Impacts: Land removed from ALR, for sale, rezoning application for estates, the for sale land is connected hydrologically to marsh, ditching and draining to prevent flooding)
- CRD side more impacted due to agriculture (potato farming)
- Bent grass is prolific seed producer, terribly invasive


History of IVB

- Gentrified with English parks, more open (land clearing, makes people feel safer), equestrian park, trailer park, ball field, agriculture, draining and ditching of marsh


Politics of IVB

- Central Saanich is very pro-agriculture
- CRD wants to push back to pre-colonial impacts


South IVB possible changes to reverse impacts

- Must determine Historical Target to be achieved, but how? Pre-colonial, or just pre-ditching?
- Restoration is still possible because pockets of natives still exist
- Flood area more often and invasive species such as quackgrass would not do as well and natives would do better. Would also reduce shrub establishment


North IVB

- Red-listed communities
- Also has invasive species moving in on edges indicating changing hydrology
- Part is a coastal wetland, brackish with no flow through
- Has a dune system on edge of marsh
- Expensive fence through marsh for Puckle Farm


3 indicators for wetland delineation

- Species
- Hydrology
- Soil eg. Peat


1st ditch on north side

- More drainage favours grasses


Maple Bay

Irv Banman
- NCC bought Elkington property in 1999 and it was heavily invaded by broom, etc.
- Almost sold to developer, but saved by community and NCC
- Bought lower field in 2001
- Closed to public due to rare species but sometimes do tours
- Historic state determined by photos and an old survey (called it oak and pine plains)
- Indicated that it was mixed in past as in current state
- Phytolith studies determined that it has been grassland for thousands of years, therefore it must have been managed by people
- Have lots of data and some specific research is done on site (Universities)
- Funding for restoration and supplies is difficult to come by and volunteers are essential


Garry Oaks

-GO's need full sun (cannot be overtopped), with that they can adapt to drought and flood
- NCC property is Valley bottom with deep soil which has become rare due to being prime development sites
- Managed by people, or likely would have been fir forest


Planting restoration (NCC)

- 1st remove invasives
- Natives were surviving in understory but not thriving
- need seeds and plants
- started nursery and found mature plants work best for plantings
- Determined areas to target for planting as not all areas are ideal and may not be effective
- Fenced areas for deer exclusion (must be large sq. ft. or raptors will destroy small ones trying to get at rodent prey)
- Mow to open up light and reduce snowberry (invasive native) b/c not enough fire or ungulate grazing
- Doug fir was replanted in historic fir forest on north side
- Spacing conifer forest to increase light penetration


Prescribed fire at NCC

- McDougal paper researched on site
- Need to follow rules to get permits, cooperate w/ authorities
- Get public awareness about positives
- Ministry of Forests, By-law office, Coastal fire center, firefighters all need to be 'on board' in order to get permits
- Starting to get more participation form fire hall and were able to double the size of the burn plot to 1.4 ha this year


What does a prescribed fire need?

- Good ventilation and humidity
- Wind in right direction and not too strong


Why are squirrels an issue at NCC?

- Eat acorns, tree germ, and birds and nestlings
- Use death machine to kill the squirrels (all invasive anyways)


How to set a prescribed burn

- Need good venting, humidity and proper wind
- Mow along edges of plot to remove fuel
- Surround plot with multiple water nozzles available and wet perimeter to moisten edge fuel
- Perform a 'back-burn' ie. (against) direction of wind, provides a slow moving, low profile, thorough burn
- Burn strips 10ft apart and move towards each other, extinguish before moving on
- Establish burnt areas around trees to prevent upward burning of moss using a drip torch and then hose down
- Fire is cool-burning, and fast so doesn't penetrate deep
(seed bank & acorns survives)


How is prescribed fire effective?

- Seed bank is not penetrated (fire doesn't reach deep enough) so native seeds survive along with some invasives and rhizomes
- The solarisation of the blackened land cooks the grasses to kill them if fire doesn't
- Photo-monitored plots afterwards to monitor responses of plants


Main parts of burn plan

- Complex plan involves many variables and all must be perfect on burn day
- Approvals must be in place and cooperation obtained with fire hall especially
- Humidity good
- Venting good
- Wind good and direction good


Beacon Hill

Thomas Munn
- GO and CDF and Coastal
- Work w/ Friends of groups...
- Work on removing invasives, replanting natives, restoring and maintaining until 'free to grow', and outdoor education
- Add biodiversity wherever possible and collect acorns from other GO stands to add the diversity
- Start w/ trees and shrubs then forbs/herbaceous
- Cottonwoods not reproducing (could be due to drought and not enough moisture on ground for seeds to germinate)
- 10 species @ risk in BH


Issues at BH

- People, dogs, and camping are a huge risk
- Drainage, climate change, and ivy understory affecting swamp
- Armalleria root rot of old CDF
- Carpet burweed which likes disturbed ground, spread by campers and people and dogs from sticky burrs (burn to remove from ground)
- Slope destabilization from king tides/storms on bluffs, planted snowberry, rose, and willow to support (some died of salt spray or lack of water), also left broom/gorse (also put log booms to absorb wave impact as important ecological function)


Politics of Beacon Hill

- Federal legislation for habitat stewardship program (BH has 10 species @ risk)
- Aesthetics from 'stakeholders' an issue, want elms cut to improve ocean view, cutting them caused bigger issue because now suckers are appearing
- Park is national heritage landscape, Heritage management plan for after colonization of settlers
- Beacon Hill Charter: prevents commercial development (programs must operate on donations)
- circle drive was a race track
- Osaka partnership trees planted in bad spot and extirpated native
- Parking lot was removed and restored mostly successfully
- Keep people out of restoration area with fences


Burning at BH

2 plots, one burned, one control
- burning is now a bit easier with new laws
- Hasn't been burned in a long time, one time only for research
- Would like to do more


Other functions @ BH

- Grows poinsettias for city offices
- Garden of edible and medicinal plants
- Plant deer resistant when possible
- Many heritage functions are maintained even if they are not environmentally helpful


Fort Rodd Hill

- Lots of cultural modification from military and FN


FRH, Steaming

- Torch
- Till
- Soak
- Torch again until it steams
- This boils leftover meristems and seeds