Restoration Measures and Comparisons Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Restoration Measures and Comparisons Deck (25):
1

What is an example of restoration measures for salt marshes in the U.S.?

Removal of invasive grass (Phagmites, reed grass)
Plant native grass (Spartina, cordgrass)
No modification of hydro-period

2

What are 2 Restoration Measures?

- Reinstating natural disturbance or removing unnatural disturbance
- Reintroducing native species, soil, and/or water amendments and herbicide use

3

What is an example of Restoration Measures in a salt marsh?

Allowing sea water back in the marsh can decrease invasive species and increase native species with only one restoration measure

4

What are examples of reinstating natural disturbance and removing unnatural disturbance?

- Allowing wildfires
- Allowing sea water re-entry into salt marsh
- Removing cattle grazing

5

Reclamation

- Not restoration because there is nothing left to restore to
- Stabilization of soil and water on lands that have been damaged by industrial activity, mining and road cuts

6

What species are usually used in reclamation?

Agronomic/cultivated grasses
- Easy and quick to establish

7

Conservation

- Preservation of existing species, landscapes, and ecosystems
- Wise use of natural resources (sustainable development and management)

8

Landscape Conservation Cooperatives (LCC)

- National network of interdependent partnerships of Government agencies, NGO's, First Nations, Universities, etc.
- Seamless Network informing resource management decisions to address national-scale stressors including climate change

9

Mitigation

Reduce environmental damage by reducing specific pollution sources

10

What are some examples of Mitigation?

- End-of-pipe management of discharging wastes (such as sewage) into the envr (VICTORIA!)
- Gross pollutant end of pipe trap
- Concept of envr credits, cap and trade, carbon credits
- Kyoto Protocol

11

REDD

Reduce Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation
- Involves whole countries, provinces, states, cities and companies

12

Stewardship

Maintaining or protecting a natural area or natural resource
- Linked to sustainability
- Friends of... Groups

13

Enhancement

Manipulating habitat to allow a selected species to exceed its historical population levels in a particular area

14

Motive for enhancement of environment?

Socio-economic

15

Examples of enhancement of environment

Burning forage in Northern BC and controlling predators (wolves) to enhance Bison and ungulate numbers
- Open Marsh Water Management (OMWM)

16

What is OMWM?

Open Marsh Water Management
- Suitable habitat (marsh ponds) are created for larvivorous (mosquito eating) fishes

17

In the U.S. salt marsh case, why wouldn't modifying the hydro-period work such as it might in the IVBRP case?

Modifying the hydro-period wouldn't work because the invasive phagmites had adapted to the marsh environment so changing the water-table would have no effect on the invasive hold.

18

What method would be best to use in restoring IVBRP and why?

Modifying the hydro-period and the water table because it was the modification of this factor with drainage, ditching, and gates that allowed invasives to establish in the first place

19

Why are Carbon emissions in the states likely decreasing?

Shift from coal burning to fracking ("cleaner")

20

What are examples of low-level scale mitigations?

- End of pipe discharge of pollutants/sewage (Victoria)
- Gross pollutant end of pipe trap

21

What are examples of high-level scale mitigations?

- Cap and trade, carbon credits, envr. credits
- Kyoto Protocol
- REDD

22

Which grasses are often used in reclamation by BC Hydro?

Annual wheatgrass because it establishes and Perennial Ryegrass because it will keep growing

23

Describe the extraction/reclamation relationship

Reclamation should be close to the effort of extraction, but often isn't.
Reclamation lags behind extraction

24

Which ecological community is well represented in BC and why?

Alpine Tundra because it is not easy to develop and is less accessible than the valleys and grasslands

25

Describe repercussions of First Nations management of grasslands (Interior case)

- FN burned the terraces and valleys to maintain grazing for elk
- Without fire disturbance the pines and trees are germinating, invading 'historical' grasslands and increasing in valleys