Flashcards in Filariasis Deck (38):
name species of lymphatic tissue nematodes
what are the species of subcutaneous tissue nematodes?
what tissue nematodes at the conjunctiva?
the disease filariasis also known as........
filariasis in Malaysia caused by......
diagnostic stage of Brugia malayi is.......
presence of microfilaria in blood
Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia malayi are nocturnal and sub-periodic periodicity. the best time to take blood for diagnosis is......
at night, greater no of microfilaria in blood.
name the vectors for lymphatic filariasis
Culex, Aedes - china, India, Indonesia
Anopheles - Malaysia
Mansonia - Brugia filariasis
diagnostic stage for lymphatic filariasis
sheathed microfilaria in blood and lymph
infective stage of lymphatic filariasis
reproduction of lymphatic filariasis is through.....
sexual reproduction of male and female adult worms
pathogenic lymphatic filaria can cause.....
adult worm reside at lymphatic vessels causing primary lesion, lymph stasis results fibrosis ➡️ obstruction to lymphatic drainage ➡️ massive oedema-elephantitis
describe the morphology of filariae
female larger than male
worm like with larger head (no nucleus) and tapered tail
multiple nuclei at body
explain how microfilaria causes chyluria in filariasis
renal lymphatic sys dilated caused by mf ▶️ ruptured ▶️ lymph fluid passed into renal pelvic ▶️ milky urine. haematuria and proteinuria may also present
clinical diagnosis of lymphatic filariasis
Acute - lymphadenitis
chronic - elephantitis
explain the morphology of Wuchereria bancrofti
no terminal nuclei, sheath faintly stained, sweeping curve appearance, discrete nuclei
define morphology of Brugia malayi
2 distinct nuclei, kinky appearance, sheath well stained, blurred compact nuclei
diagnostic method of lymphatic filariasis
ELISA, thick and thin blood smear taken at night,
management of lymphatic filariasis
drugs- DEC, Albendazole +ivermectin, antibiotic (secondary), apply pressure for elephantitis, foot hygiene
Dracunculus medinensis is also known as.....
name the reservoir for Dracunculus medinensis
dogs or fur-bearing animal that've contact with water containing infective cyclops
How humans get infected with Dracunculus medinensis?
drinking water contaminated by cyclops containing L3 larvae of Dracunculus medinensis
describe the life cycle of Dracunculus medinensis
water containing L3 larvae in cyclops ▶️ cyclops die, L3 larvae release, penetrate stomach and intestinal wall, mature and reproduce sexually, male dies ▶️ fertilized female migrate to skin, discharge larva ▶️ female emerge from skin, L1 larvae released into water ▶️ L1 larvae consume by cyclops ▶️ L1 to L3 in cyclop
clinical diagnosis of guinea worm disease
increase WBC- eosinophils, observe ulcer, flood with water to recover larvae, serum immunology, x-ray (reveals worm at infected area)
treatment of Guinea Worm Disease
flood ulcerated area, gentle traction to pull worm slowly, stop when resistence met, worm wrapped around stick to mantain tension and encourage more worms to come out
Onchocerca volvulus also known as.....
what is the vector for Onchocerca volvulus
blackfly (genus Simulium), usually many repeated bites are needed to cause pathogenicity
describe the life cycle of Onchocerca volvulus
L3 larvae entar through blackfly bite ▶️ infect subcutaneous tissue, mature, mate ▶️ produce unsheathed microfilariae usually at skin, can be in blood, urine, sputum ▶️ blackfly take bloodmeal ▶️ L1 to L3 ▶️ migrate to head and prboscis ▶️ infect by blackfly to other human
describe the clinical presentation of Onchocerca volvulus
sypmtoms 1-3 years after infection, at time adult females produce microfilariae
causes : rashes, papular skin lesion, subcut nodules, itch, depigment skin, lymphadenitis, eye lesion (blindness)
diagnosis of Onchocerciasis by Onchocerca volvulus
skin snip, slit-lamp examination (visualize the larvae), serologic test specific for Onchocerca: OV-16 antigen antibody test and LIPS assay, PCR
describe the management of Onchocerciasis
Ivermectin (kill larvae only)
Doxycycline (able to kill adult worm)
preventive measure of Onchocerciasis
repellant, wearing long sleeves and long pants during the day
Vector for Loa loa is...
deerfly (day time)
loaiasis caused by Loa loa also known as....
Loa loa filariasis, Filaria loa, Filaria lacriminalis, Filaria subconjunctivalis, Calabar swellings, Fugitive swelling.
describe the life cycle of Loa loa in deerfly..
deerfly takes bloodmeal ▶️ microfilariae shed sheath, penetrate fly's midgut, migrate to thoracic muscle ▶️ L1 larvae mature to L3 ▶️ migrate to fly's sproboscis ▶️ enter human host when deerfly takes bloodmeal
clinical presentation of Loaiasis
can be asymptomatic, swelling of eyelids, calabar swelling/retinopathy, lipymphadenitis
diagnosis of Loaiasis
clinical presentation (eye), eosinophilia on blood test after travel, larvae identificTion taken from blood smear between 10am to 2pm, serology