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Flashcards in Filariasis Deck (38):
0

name species of lymphatic tissue nematodes

wuchereria bancrofti
brugia malayi
brugia timori

1

what are the species of subcutaneous tissue nematodes?

dracunculus medinensis
onchocerca volvulus
Loa loa

2

what tissue nematodes at the conjunctiva?

Loa loa

3

the disease filariasis also known as........

elephantitis

4

filariasis in Malaysia caused by......

brugia malayi

5

diagnostic stage of Brugia malayi is.......

presence of microfilaria in blood

6

Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia malayi are nocturnal and sub-periodic periodicity. the best time to take blood for diagnosis is......

at night, greater no of microfilaria in blood.

7

name the vectors for lymphatic filariasis

Culex, Aedes - china, India, Indonesia
Anopheles - Malaysia
Mansonia - Brugia filariasis

8

diagnostic stage for lymphatic filariasis

sheathed microfilaria in blood and lymph

9

infective stage of lymphatic filariasis

L3 larvae

10

reproduction of lymphatic filariasis is through.....

sexual reproduction of male and female adult worms

11

pathogenic lymphatic filaria can cause.....

adult worm reside at lymphatic vessels causing primary lesion, lymph stasis results fibrosis ➡️ obstruction to lymphatic drainage ➡️ massive oedema-elephantitis

12

describe the morphology of filariae

female larger than male
worm like with larger head (no nucleus) and tapered tail
multiple nuclei at body

13

explain how microfilaria causes chyluria in filariasis

renal lymphatic sys dilated caused by mf ▶️ ruptured ▶️ lymph fluid passed into renal pelvic ▶️ milky urine. haematuria and proteinuria may also present

14

clinical diagnosis of lymphatic filariasis

Acute - lymphadenitis
chronic - elephantitis

15

explain the morphology of Wuchereria bancrofti

no terminal nuclei, sheath faintly stained, sweeping curve appearance, discrete nuclei

16

define morphology of Brugia malayi

2 distinct nuclei, kinky appearance, sheath well stained, blurred compact nuclei

17

diagnostic method of lymphatic filariasis

ELISA, thick and thin blood smear taken at night,

18

management of lymphatic filariasis

drugs- DEC, Albendazole +ivermectin, antibiotic (secondary), apply pressure for elephantitis, foot hygiene

19

Dracunculus medinensis is also known as.....

guinea worm

20

name the reservoir for Dracunculus medinensis

dogs or fur-bearing animal that've contact with water containing infective cyclops

21

How humans get infected with Dracunculus medinensis?

drinking water contaminated by cyclops containing L3 larvae of Dracunculus medinensis

22

describe the life cycle of Dracunculus medinensis

water containing L3 larvae in cyclops ▶️ cyclops die, L3 larvae release, penetrate stomach and intestinal wall, mature and reproduce sexually, male dies ▶️ fertilized female migrate to skin, discharge larva ▶️ female emerge from skin, L1 larvae released into water ▶️ L1 larvae consume by cyclops ▶️ L1 to L3 in cyclop

23

clinical diagnosis of guinea worm disease

increase WBC- eosinophils, observe ulcer, flood with water to recover larvae, serum immunology, x-ray (reveals worm at infected area)

24

treatment of Guinea Worm Disease

flood ulcerated area, gentle traction to pull worm slowly, stop when resistence met, worm wrapped around stick to mantain tension and encourage more worms to come out
topical antibiotic

25

Onchocerca volvulus also known as.....

thread worm

26

what is the vector for Onchocerca volvulus

blackfly (genus Simulium), usually many repeated bites are needed to cause pathogenicity

27

describe the life cycle of Onchocerca volvulus

L3 larvae entar through blackfly bite ▶️ infect subcutaneous tissue, mature, mate ▶️ produce unsheathed microfilariae usually at skin, can be in blood, urine, sputum ▶️ blackfly take bloodmeal ▶️ L1 to L3 ▶️ migrate to head and prboscis ▶️ infect by blackfly to other human

28

describe the clinical presentation of Onchocerca volvulus

sypmtoms 1-3 years after infection, at time adult females produce microfilariae
causes : rashes, papular skin lesion, subcut nodules, itch, depigment skin, lymphadenitis, eye lesion (blindness)

29

diagnosis of Onchocerciasis by Onchocerca volvulus

skin snip, slit-lamp examination (visualize the larvae), serologic test specific for Onchocerca: OV-16 antigen antibody test and LIPS assay, PCR

30

describe the management of Onchocerciasis

Ivermectin (kill larvae only)
Doxycycline (able to kill adult worm)
no vaccine

31

preventive measure of Onchocerciasis

repellant, wearing long sleeves and long pants during the day

32

Vector for Loa loa is...

deerfly (day time)

33

loaiasis caused by Loa loa also known as....

Loa loa filariasis, Filaria loa, Filaria lacriminalis, Filaria subconjunctivalis, Calabar swellings, Fugitive swelling.

34

describe the life cycle of Loa loa in deerfly..

deerfly takes bloodmeal ▶️ microfilariae shed sheath, penetrate fly's midgut, migrate to thoracic muscle ▶️ L1 larvae mature to L3 ▶️ migrate to fly's sproboscis ▶️ enter human host when deerfly takes bloodmeal

35

clinical presentation of Loaiasis

can be asymptomatic, swelling of eyelids, calabar swelling/retinopathy, lipymphadenitis

36

diagnosis of Loaiasis

clinical presentation (eye), eosinophilia on blood test after travel, larvae identificTion taken from blood smear between 10am to 2pm, serology

37

Management of Loaiasis

Diethercarbamazine (DEC) -kill adult worm and microfilariae
surgical removal of worm from infected eye
protection from fly bite (repellant)