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Flashcards in Final Deck (178)
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1

Wheezing (high pitch, whistling) in the lungs indicates what?

Obstruction

2

Rhonchi (low pitch, snoring) in the lungs indicates what?

Secretions

3

Fine (high pitch, "rubbing hair") or Coarse Crackles (low pitch, "velcro-like") in the lungs indicates what?

Infection in the bronchi, alveoli. (will disappear after several breaths if not pathological)

4

Type of lung sound that is common w/o pathology?

Rales

5

What are signs of possible pulmonary pathology?

-Neck pain, shoulder pain, mid-thoracic pain
-Cough
-Fever
-Shallow breathing
-Increased respiratory rate
-Increased pulse

6

An inflammatory reaction to microbes or to microbial products involving the pulmonary parenchyma. One of the M/C & significant health problems in the elderly. Been called "Old man's friend"

Pneumonia

7

What are predisposing factors to pneumonia?

- Poor oral hygiene
- Debility from cardiac/respiratory ds
- Cancers
- Decreased ambulation
- Exposure to broad-spectrum antibiotics (Big factor)

8

What are s/s of pneumonia?

- High fever
- Cough
- Sputum production
- Tachypenia (increased resp. rate over 16bpm)
- Tachycardia

9

What clinical findings are unique to viral pneumonia?

- Decreased neutrophils, increased lymphocytes
- low-grade fever
- Normal auscultation

10

What clinical findings are unique to bacterial pneumonia?

- Increased neutrophils
- Night sweats
- Rales, wheezes, bronchial breath sounds

11

How is TB primarily acquired in the elderly?

Through inhaling droplets

12

What causes TB to remain dormant?

Host's immune system remains intact

13

What conditions have to met for a person to be considered to have a TB INFECTION?

- They've been exposed to the infection
- Remain asymptomatic w/ a (+) tuberculin skin test

14

What conditions have to met for a person to be considered to have TB DISEASE?

- They've been exposed to the infection
- Have symptoms

15

What are symptoms of TB?

- HA
- Fever
- Cough
- Excessive sputum production*
- Hemoptysis*
- Fatigue
- Anorexia*
- Weight loss*
- Night sweats ***
- Muscle weakness

16

What are the 2 tests for TB?

1. Mantoux method: PPD (Polysorbate-Stabilized Purified Protein Derivative Antigen)
2. Chest X-ray

17

What does a (+) PPD test indicate?

Person harbors viable organisms (has been exposed, not that they are active)

18

Flu season typically occurs during what months (in the northern hemisphere)?

December through April

19

What are s/s of influenza?

- Abrupt fever (w/i 1st 12 hours)*
- Nasal obstruction w/ clear nasal discharge *
- Non-productive (dry) cough (bronchitis) *
- Chills
- Rigors (shaking during high fever)
- HA
- Myalgias
- Malaise
- Anorexia
- dry/sore throat causing cough to get worse on 2nd/3rd day

20

Medical profession recommends that all elderly people over what age receive a flu vaccine annually?

65 & older

21

What is the efficacy of the flu vaccine at preventing major symptoms? hospitalizations? Reducing deaths?

30-70% for preventing major symptoms
50-60% for preventing hospitalizations
75% in reducing deaths

22

Why do pt's usually get the flu after getting the vaccine?

Usually b/c they got the shot too late & they already had the ds in them

23

What is the mortality rate assoc, w/ the flu?

High (primarily d/t pneumonia)

24

An obstruction of the pulmonary arts. caused by a blood clot (thrombus) or other material carried to the pulmonary vasculature by the circulatory system (embolus)

Pumonary embolism

25

What 2 things pose the greatest risk for developing a DVT?

Bed rest
Inactivity

26

What are s/s of a pulmonary embolism?

- Tachypenia
- Shortness of breath
- Chest pain
- Syncope
- Wheezing
- Hemoptysis
- Low grade fever
- Leg pain or swelling
- Anxiety

27

What are s/s of a DVT?

- Leg swelling
- Tenderness
- Increased warmth

28

This is a group of diseases that includes chronic bronchitis & emphysema, that block airflow in & out of the lungs

COPD

29

This is charac. by a productive cough occurring most days of the month for at least 3 months of the year for 2 consecutive years

Chronic bronchitis (Ain't nobody got time for that)

30

This is charac. by enlarged alveolar spaces that reduce the surface area for gas exchange.

Emphysema