Flashcards in Final Deck (31):
What are the reasons for the success of the beetles?
1) the elytra shape and protective nature are virtually indestructible
2) Holometabolous development with overwintering pupa stage
3) Found in every habitat type except marine
4) Will eat almost anything
5) Generally have very low oxygen requirements
What are some characteristics of Mecopterans?
1) Elaborate courtship in some species
2) Female secrete a pheromone
4) Male may present a gift of a dead prey insect
What are some characteristics of Dipterans?
1) small and soft-bodied
2) Mouthparts exhibit considerable variation
3) Holometabolous development
4) vectors for many diseases
What group did Siphonaptera evolve from and why?
1) similar mouthparts
2) adult antennae are short
3) larval throacic legs and eyes are suppressed
4) escape from cocoon is similiar
5) some of the Hippoboscidae are wingless
What is a possible origin of fleas aside from diptera?
Family Boreidae - snow scorpion flies
What are some similarities with the flea life cycle and the louse life cycle?
Both are wingless (secondarily)
Anoplurans take a blood meal
What are some differences with the flea and louse life cycles?
flea Eggs are not attached - fall off host
immature develop off the host
pupa stage is not attached to host
List the differences between butterflies and moths
- wings not folded over body at rest
- brightly colored
- day flying - diurnal
- slender bodied
- antennae knobbed
- pupa - chrysalis
- wings folded over body at rest
- often dull in appearance
- night flying - nocturnal
- heavy bodied
- antennae not knobbed
- pupa in cocoons (silk)
what 2 reasons noctuidae is so successful?
1) generally pupate underground
2) Able to detect bat echolocation
how do spring and summer forms of luna moths differ?
Spring form has red borders
summer form doesn't have borders
what's a unique characteristic of F. Papilionidae?
they have an osmeterium - which is eversibile and emits smelly compounds
What are Trichopterans thought to have evolved from and why?
- Homometabolous development
- Presence of scales on the wings
- produce silk
- several lepidopterans have aquatic larval stages
What are some characteristics of subphylum Symphyta
- Abdomen with base broadly attached to thorax
- behavior is not very sophisticated
- ovipositor usually fitted for sawing or piercing plant tissues
What are some characteristics of Apocrita?
- First abdominal segment incorporated into thorax
- second segment narrowly constricted as the petiole
- behavior very sophisticated
- ovipositor specialized for piercing and/or stinging
what are some characteristics of hymenopteran immature stages?
- Strictly herbivorous
- very similar to lepidopteran larvae
- thick cylinder like trunk with appendages on most segments
- majority are zoophagous
- half of the families are parasitic
- also predators on spiders & caterpillars
- all inhabit protected environments (body cavity of a host or a cell prepared for them)
What are ants thought to evolve from?
wasp-like ancestors - Vespidae
What is a Bivouac?
Temporary shelter out in the open - ants
What is Apiculture?
What is the distance needed so that bees won't instinctively connect combs with wax bridges
What are Hamuli?
a small hook linking the fore wing and hind wing
what insect are bed bugs closely related to?
what kind of metamorphosis to bed bugs have?
incomplete or simple
What are some feeding strategies and adaptations for bed bugs?
- active during times of host inactivity - at night
- appendages developed for rapid movement rather than clinging on to host
- use a 'hit & run' feeding strategy on resting host
- dorso-ventrally compressed body shape and winglessness
- use piercing-sucking type mouth parts to obtain blood meal
what are some characteristics of Eusocial Behavior?
-Co-operation in care of the young
-reproductive division of labor
-overlapping of generations
name an example of subsocial behavior
earwigs and cockroaches
list the 4 groups of insects that eusocial behavior
1) eusocial wasps - three sub-families of Vespidae
2) Eusocial bees - Family Apidae
3) Ants - Family Formicidae
What are similarities between termites and social hymenopterans?
-Castes are similar in number and kind
- especially with ants because they live underground
- Trophallaxis occur in both - to a lesser degree in hymenoptera
- chemical trails used by termites and ants
- inhibitory caste social hormones
- Grooming between individuals - partial transmission of social hormones
- nest odor and territoriality common
- nest structure of similar complexity
- cannibalism is widespread
list the differences between termites and eusocial hymenoptera.
1) Caste determination
2) worker castes
4) dominance hierarchies
5) fertilization process
6) feeding behavior
7) social parasitism
What are First Generation Pesticides and give an example.
hellebore (a plant) used by romans to rid themselves of lice
How did insects become resistant to pesticides?
1) Short Generation time
2) High reproductive rate
3) High genetic variation
4) High mutation rate