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Strengths Perspective

is a philosophical approach to social work positing
that the goals, strengths, and resources of people and their environment, rather
than their problems and pathologies should be the central focus of the helping


Social Programs

specific set of activities that are designed to solve social problems. For example, public social policies that create childhood nutrition programs make it possible for children to be adequately fed.


Social Problems

are concerns about the quality of life for large groups of people that are either held as a broad consensus among a populations or are voiced by social economic elites



Refers to people's control over their own destiny.


Institutional Approach

Asserts that the government should assure basic food, healthcare, income, employment, and educations as a right of citizenship in advanced economies.



Residual Approach

relief provided only if only if the market place and family wasn't able to fill a persons needs.

stop gap

small quantities


Monetary Policy

Milton Friedman

believed that supply side economics could actually damage the economy so instead the government should focus on promoting steady growth in the nation's money supply, that is the total amount of money that is circulating through the economy.


Fiscal Policy


government should stabilize the economy by increasing or decreasing taxes in response to economic conditions. When individuals or private business do not consume or invest enough then the government should intervene.


Mandatory Spending

Government spending that is directed towards groups or individuals that are legally entitled to it, as well as interest on our national debt.


Discretionary Spending

Discretionary spending is a spending category through which governments can spend through an appropriations bill. This spending is optional as part of fiscal policy, in contrast to entitlement programs for which funding is mandatory


Entitlement Programs

all citizens who meet the eligibility requirements legally qualify. (Social Security, Medicare)


Progressive Tax

require those with higher incomes to pay higher rates of taxes. (income taxes)


Regressive Tax

require those with lower incomes to pay higher rates or proportions of their incomes. (sales tax)


General Tax Revenue

Is not dedicated automatically for functions such as road maintenance but can be used for general purposes.


Tax expenditures

tax deductions that the government extends to certain groups in order to assist them in obtaining services such as housing, health care, and education.


Eligibility Rules

Stipulate who receives services. Some require that people can only receive benefits if they have made prior contributions.


Service Delivery System

How social services are accessed. Sometimes through private or public agencies.


English Poor Law 1601

Worthy vs Unworthy Poor

outdoor relief.

local responsibility, each locality was responsible for helping only its own residents.

almshouses were supported by private funds, and they were reserved for the “worthy poor,”


Indoor Relief

Aid provided in institutional settings such as work houses.


Outdoor Relief

outdoor relief-aid provided to them in
their homes or other non-institutional settings.


Jane Addams

Founded Hull House in 1889

focus on environment


policy work / macro wok


Dorothea Dix

a leader in the mental health reform movement

19th century

Wanted the federal government to provide institutions for the mentally ill.


Mary Richmond

In 1917, Mary Richmond published Social Diagnosis

focus on the individual



Settlement Houses

Hull House 1886

Houses places in poorer neighborhoods where reformers wanted to implement change

residence based aid

provided poor with social capital


Charity Organization Societies

Grounded in "Social Darwinism" believed that the poor caused their own poverty (bad genetics, bad morals)

“scientific charity,” which involved the use of systematic procedures to assess who was in need

"friendly visitors"


Social Security Act of 1935

entitlement vs assistance

funded through FICA

original act made provisions for old-age benefits; financial assistance to elderly,the blind,and dependent children

OASDI social insurance program for the "worthy" who paid in


Medicare Part A

Medicare hospital insurance that pays for inpatient hospital stays, care in a skilled nursing facility, hospice care, and some home health care.


Medicare Part B

Medicare coverage helps pay for physician services, medical supplies, and other outpatient services not paid for by Medicare Part A.


Medicare Part C

The part of Medicare that expands the list of different types of entities allowed to offer health plans to Medicare beneficiaries. Also known as Medicare+Choice


Medicare Part D

Medicare prescription drug benefit, is a federal program to subsidize the costs of prescription drugs for Medicare beneficiaries