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Strengths Perspective

is a philosophical approach to social work positing
that the goals, strengths, and resources of people and their environment, rather
than their problems and pathologies should be the central focus of the helping


English Poor Law 1601

Worthy vs Unworthy Poor

outdoor relief.

local responsibility, each locality was responsible for helping only its own residents.

almshouses were supported by private funds, and they were reserved for the “worthy poor,”


Indoor Relief

Aid provided in institutional settings such as work houses.


Outdoor Relief

outdoor relief-aid provided to them in
their homes or other non-institutional settings.


Child saving

The child-saving movement developed in response to the growing numbers of children who were overcrowding institutions and living on the streets of the cities.

worthy poor

orphan trains, and growth of orphanages


Jane Adams

Founded Hull House in 1889

focus on environment


policy work / macro wok


Dorothea Dix

a leader in the mental health reform movement

19th century

Wanted the federal government to provide institutions for the mentally ill.


Mary Richmond

In 1917, Mary Richmond published Social Diagnosis

focus on the individual



Settlement Houses

Hull House 1886

Houses places in poorer neighborhoods where reformers wanted to implement change

residence based aid

provided poor with social capital


Charity Organization Societies

Grounded in "Social Darwinism" believed that the poor caused their own poverty (bad genetics, bad morals)

“scientific charity,” which involved the use of systematic procedures to assess who was in need

"friendly visitors"


SS Act of 1935

entitlement vs assistance

funded through FICA

original act made provisions for old-age benefits; financial assistance to elderly,the blind,and dependent children

OASDI social insurance program for the "worthy" who paid in


Works Progress Administration

Roosevelt Administration "New Deal"

employed millions of people in such diverse activities as building roads,bridges, and other public works; planting trees and preserving forests; performing plays, and painting murals

replaced the principle that social welfare was largely a local and state responsibility


Civilian Conservation Corps

Employed people to plant trees and build trails.

money went home to families

rural locations

part of the "New Deal"


Women and war

women entered the work force and often moved into non-traditional areas, such as manufacturing jobs in
shipyards and aircraft factories.

when the war ended jobs and benefits like work time daycare ended and the idea of gender roles continued to be enforced


School Segregation

1954 supreme court ruled separate but equal was unconstitutional in Brown vs Board of Education



part of "The Great Society"

established in 1965

Medicare is a national health insurance program for people age 65 and older who are eligible for Social Security and for certain categories of younger people with disabilities.



Medicaid provides health care for certain categories of people with very low incomes as part of public assistance.

It is a means-tested program that is
financed jointly by federal and state dollars.


Block Grants

allow the state more discretion over how federal
monies will be spent. However, block grants typically are capped, so that if the need for services increases, the federal government will not automatically provide additional funding.


Affirmation Action

a general term that refers to policies and programs designed to compensate for discrimination against
marginalized groups such as women and people of color


The New Deal

Roosevelt Administration

influenced by Keynesian economics

federal government had a responsibility to care for people who were in need by no fault of their own. Replaced the idea that social welfare belonged to local and state.


Social Darwinism

a social philosophy that applies Darwin’s theory of evolution based on natural selection to human societies

The poor were poor because they were biologically inferior


Worthy/ Unworthy Poor

Worthy poor are those seen as deserving of assistance such as orphans and the elderly. The worthy poor tend to have better services and their services have less stigma.

Unworthy poor those seen as undeserving of aid such as single able bodied males.


Reagan and Welfare

reduced welfare funding

increased corporate welfare

turned more social welfare back over to the states


Americans with Disability Act

1990 law that bans discrimination against people with physical or mental disabilities in such areas as employment and transportation


State Children's Insurance Program

1997 authorizes states to offer health insurance to children,up to the age of 19, who are not already insured.

Signed under Clinton Administration


Medicare Part D

began in 2006 under the Bush administration, used a private-sector strategy to provide prescription drug benefits for people receiving Medicare.


Structural Discriminatiom

refers to entrenched and long-lasting societal practices that favor one group over another based on group characteristics such as skin color


Affordable Care Act

2010 U.S. joined the community of nations that ensure health care as a basic right
for most of their people, rather than a privilege for some.

In the health care reform legislation, risk is shifting
from individuals to the federal and state government


Earned Income Tax Credit

enacted by congress in 1975 in order to decrease the impact of Medicare and Social Security taxes that are deducted from the wages earned by low-income families with children

provided a refundable tax credit to
families whose incomes fell below the federal poverty line


Lilly Ledbetter Fair Pay Act

Lilly Ledbetter sued Goodyear Tire after 20 years’ of service when she realized that, although she had the most experience, she was the lowest-paid supervisor

Signed by Obama allows individuals to bring about a lawsuit within 180 days of any issuance of a discriminatory paycheck