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Flashcards in Final Deck (51):
0

imposed the first legal responsibility on society to care for the aged and sickly.

What year?

Elizabethan poor laws

1601

1

Purpose was to provide federal old age assistance to the elderly who lived at home or with others.

What year?

Social Security Act

1935

2

Withheld aid to older ppl who lived in public institutions.

What year?

Social Security Act

1935

3

a health insurance program administered by the Social Security Administration

Medicare

4

What is the difference between part A and part B of Medicare?

A - Hospital Insurance
B- Supplemental medical Insurance

5

This part of Medicare is financed through payroll deductions and employer contributions to a health insurance trust fund

A

6

This part of Medicare is a voluntary program.
What does it require?

B
The older person must pay a monthly premium

7

What does the federal government do regarding part B of Medicare?

they match the premium out of general tax revenues

8

what is the coverage like for long term care under part B of Medicare?

limited

9

These were implemented by Medicare to help control healthcare costs

When?

Diagnostic Related Groups (DRGs)

1983

10

How do DRGs work?

they link Medicare hospital reimbursement with average length of stay, principle diagnosis, and types of procedure performed

11

what is the main problem with DRGs?

what does this problem cause?

They don't take into account individual differences in terms of severity of illness, available recourses, n number of hospital stays

hospitals decrease length of stay so ppl are released quicker and sicker

12

What does OBRA stand for?

When was it developed?

Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act

1987

13

What was OBRAs goal for nursing homes?

to provide an environment with the highest level of physical, mental and psychosocial well-being for residents

14

a when did every state have to follow OBRAs regulations?

Oct. 1990

15

The focus of this program is to evaluate resident care outcomes and to de-emphasize review of structural measures of quality of care (policies and procedures)

OBRA

16

What do OBRA regulations specifically address?

QOL

17

What was the life expectancy in:
1900
1992
1996
2004

47.3
75.7
76.1
77.9

18

whats the difference bw men n women's life expectancy in the mid 80s?

women had a longer life expectancy at 78.4/71.5

19

How much longer do whites live compared to blacks?

6yrs

20

genotypic aging

primary aging

21

phenotypic aging

secondary aging

22

factors such as stress and poor nutrition speed up the aging process

secondary aging

23

natural degenerative process by all species

primary aging

24

what is the most highly regarded theories on biological aging?
explain it.

cellular aging theory
decline in cells ability to replicate

25

pressure sores

decubitus ulcers

26

what is the most common ailment i older ppl?

arthritis

27

this affects 48% of ppl over 65yrs old

arthritis

28

disease of the connective tissue, joint inflammation, redness, swelling, and tenderness

rheumatoid arthritis

29

thickening and loss of elasticity in the arteries

arteriosclerosis

30

deposit of fatty material in the arteries

atherosclerosis

31

MI

heart attack

32

CVA

cerebrovascular accident (stroke)

33

the closing or blocking of the vessel by a free-floating clot formed somewhere else in the body

embolism

34

a weak artery wall breaks, allowing blood to flow freely to other tissues and increasing pressure on them

hemmorages

35

numbness or weakness in face, sudden confusion, aphasia, trouble seeing, trouble walking, dizziness, severe headache

CVA

36

clouding effect of the eye lens

cataracts

37

pressure on the eyes due to fluid build up

glaucoma

38

domiciliary care home

group home for the elderly, licensed to meet certain program needs

39

state all four benefits of Evidence-based practice

1. improve QoC
2. improve SOP and result in fewer variations in practice
3. Provide cost savings because interventions are supported by evidence
4. Improve outcomes in general

40

why was the N.E.S.T. approach developed?

to decrease dependence of psychopharmaceutical means of behavior control among ppl with dementia

41

What does N.E.S.T. mean?

N - "needs" of the individual with memory loss
E - "environment" of the person in distress
S - "stimulation," for appropriate levels of stim and rest
T - "technique" and approaches used by caregivers

42

what are 4 cognitive problems for ppl w dementia?

memory impairment
difficulty w problem solving and decision making
language problems
confusion

43

6 behavioral problems for ppl w dementia

apathetic
psychiatric
physical nonaggressive
physical aggressive
verbal nonaggressive
verbal aggressive

44

the most common type of dementia

Alzheimer's

45

how many ppl in the US have Alzheimer's
how many new dxs each yr?

over 4M
over 250K

46

what does Alzheimer's affect?

intellectual functioning
memory
judgment
personality
performance of ADLs

47

What r the three stages of Alzheimer's?

Early
intermediate
later

48

which stage of Alzheimer's?
severe deterioration of physical/intellectual functions, loss of language, loss of bowel/bladder control, inability to walk or complete ADLs

later stage

49

which stage of Alzheimer's?
loss of recent memory, language and mood problems

early stage

50

which stage of Alzheimer's?
more memory loss, additional language problems, may be physically aggressive

intermediate stage