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1


1. Relays are:
A. electronic switches that are used to detect rotary motion
B. limited current and voltage ratings
C. a range of limit switches ensuring actuators remain within limits
D. an electromagnet that controls a mechanical lever arm to operate a switching mechanism

D. an electromagnet that controls a mechanical lever arm to operate a switching mechanism

2

2. The advantages of a conventional electric motor-driven prosthesis are:
A. They are compliant
B. They have a high power-to-weight ratio
C. They do not suffer from backlash
D. All of these are true
E. None of these are true

B. They have a high power-to-weight ratio

3

3. Solid-state relays (SSRs) generally have an opto-isolated high-voltage input that controls low current-handling transistors or thyristors.

False

4

4. What kind of control is now available where the rate of control is proportional to the actuation signal amplitude and gives the TD more precision?
A. Digital control
B. Analog control
C. Proportional control
D. Amplitude control

C. Proportional control

5

5. What is a MOSFET?

C. metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors

6

6. Most portable rechargeable batteries are wet cell types, which are hermetically sealed.

False

7

7. These are primary battery types that are available for different applications

A. Zinc Carbon
B. Zinc air
C. Mercury

8

8. The main advantages of primary batteries are their high energy density, long storage life, and ease of disposal

True

9

9. One convenient alternative from to the lead-acid battery is the gel cell, which contains a semisolid electrolyte that prevents spillage

True

10

10. In regards to total energy output, improved efficiency can be achieved by "tuning" a device so that its electrical resonance is matched to the mechanical excitation frequency.

True

11

11. In regards to a Wheatstone bridge, temperature changes can result in resistance changes of the same order as those caused by strain, so temperature compensation is not essential if good accuracy is required.

False

12

12. Rotary Optical, Absolute, Optical Disk, and Incremental are all examples of:
A. MEMS Devices
B. Encoders
C. Transducers
D. Machine Learning

B. Encoders

13

13. Small displacements can be measured using precision potentiometers.

False

14

14. Rate Gyros, Accelerometers, Tilt Sensors, and Switches are all examples of:
A. Op-Amps
B. Encoders
C. Transducers
D. Machine Learning

C. Transducers

15

15. Potentiometers made from conductive plastic film are the components of choice. They are low friction and low noise and have a long operational life. Unfortunately, they are sensitive to temperature and other environmental factors

True

16

16. What sensor can be manufactured from accelerometers mounted on three orthogonal axes and equating the relative gravity vector in each?
A. Rate Gyro
B. Tilt sensor
C. Op-Amps
D. DSP

A. Tilt sensor

17

17. From a mechanical perspective, potentiometers add inertia and friction to the moving parts of the system they are measuring. As a result, a conductive plastic potentiometer will not last hundreds of million of cycles even if the conditions are good. Wire-wound pots last much longer.

False

18

18. What are the types of pressure?
A. Clustering, Bayesian, and support vector
B. Absolute, gauge, and differential
C. Inverting, differential, and charge
D. GSR, EEG, and ERG

Absolute, gauge, and differential

19

19. kPa, psi, cm H2O, in HG, and mbar are all units of measure for what?
A. flux
B. force
C. pressure
D. Hall-Effect

pressure

20

20. Linear encoders are more sensitive to variations in temperature than the other types of encoders, but their main disadvantage is a limited frequency response.

False

21

21. In traditional methods of measuring blood pressure, the "lub-dub" sound is called:
A. Hall Effect
B. Korotkoff
C. Kirchhoff’s Law
D. Coriolis Force

B. Korotkoff

22

22. Magnetic field strength is most commonly measured using:
A. magnetoresistance (MR) and the Hall effect
B. magnetoresistance (MR) and voltage
C. magnetoresistance (MR) and current
D. magnetoresistance (MR) and magnetic flux density

A. magnetoresistance (MR) and the Hall effect

23

23. The most commonly used piezoelectric material that is very sensitive and flexible is called:
A. DSP
B. PVF2
C. LVDT
D. MEMS

B. PVF2

24

24. MR is a property of most magnetic materials. A decrease in electrical resistance occurs when a magnet field is applied __________________ to the direction of the current flow.
A. Positive
B. Perpendicular
C. Negative
D. Parallel

B. Perpendicular

25

25. Electrodes that do not use externally applied electrolyte gels are known as:
A. Wet
B. Dry
C. Active
D. Passive

Dry

26

26. Electrical devices that produce or trigger a physical or physiological response by stimulating the body's musculature or nerves are also considered to be actuators.

True

27

27. Capacitance is _________________ proportional to the dielectric constant of the material between the plates.
A. Directly
B. Inversely

Directly

28

28. The equations that describe how electrical building blocks are combined are known as:
A. Korotkoff
B. Kirchoff's laws
C. Coriolis effect
D. Hall-effect
E. Lorentz force law

A. Kirchoff's laws

29

29. Proportional, Integral, Proportional plus Integral (PI), Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) are all examples of what?
A. Rate Gyros
B. Tilt Sensors
C. MEMs device
D. Controllers

Controllers

30

30. The most common of all the sensors used for angle and angular rate measurement are:
A. rotary encoders
B. magnetic encoders
C. digital optical encoders
D. absolute encoders
E. incremental encoders

C. digital optical encoders

31

32. In Biomechatronics, signals obtained directly from the organism include:
A. Tactile signals from the TD, outputs of potentiometers, and rate gyros.
B. Electrical, chemical, and pressure signals.
C. Inverting, non inverting, differential, instrumentation, and charge
D. Inverting, noninverting, differential, and instrumentation

A. Electrical, chemical, and pressure signals.

32

31. The encoder that consists of a light source and a number of photo transistors separated by a rotating mask made from alternating opaque and transparent radial bands is consistent with a(n):
A. rotary encoders
B. magnetic encoders
C. digital optical encoders
D. absolute encoders
E. incremental encoders

C. digital optical encoders

33

33. Which encoder can be made from glass or plastic onto which has been deposited a radial pattern organized into tracks, or metal disks through which holes have been cut?
A. rotary encoders
B. magnetic encoders
C. digital optical encoders
D. absolute encoders
E. incremental encoders

Rotary Controllers

34

34. Signals generated from the biomechatronic process include
A. Tactile signals from the TD, outputs of potentiometers, and rate gyros.
B. Electrical, chemical, and pressure signals.
C. Inverting, non inverting, differential, instrumentation, and charge
D. All of these

A. Tactile signals from the TD, outputs of potentiometers, and rate gyros.

35

35. Most absolute encorder discs are encoded with either binary or python codes.

False

36

37. A common application for those amazing absolute encoders is like ones found on a prosthetic arm.

True

37

37. A common application for those amazing absolute encoders is like ones found on a prosthetic arm

True

38

38. Bioelectric potentials are ionic voltages produced as a result of electrochemical activity in some type of specialist cells.

True

39

39. Located at the joints or pivot points of an articulated prosthesis, which encoder can monitor exact angular position, direction and speed of arm travel?
A. rotary encoders
B. magnetic encoders
C. digital optical encoders
D. absolute encoders
E. incremental encoders

D. absolute encoders

40


40. Tachogenerators are small AC or DC generators that output what in proportion to the rotational speed of a shaft?
A. Voltage
B. Velocity
C. Current
D. Amperage
E. Light

Voltage

41

41. What uses the conservation of angular momentum to keep one or more inertial axes pointed in one direction as the external frame translates and rotates?
A. Tachogenerators
B. Rate gyros
C. FOG rate sensor
D. PSD sensor

B. Rate gyros

42

42. Most modern low-cost microelectromechanical systems (MEMSs) rate gyros operate using the ______________, which states that if an object is moving in a straight line and is subject to a rotation, its path will deviate from that straight line.
A. Coriolis Force
B. Hall Effect
C. Lombard’s Paradox
D. Kirchhoff’s Laws

A. Coriolis Force

43

43. The main advantages of MEMS rate gyros are their __________ size and the fact that they are ___________ power
A. Medium, low
B. Small, high
C. Small, Low
D. Medium, high

C. Small, Low

44

44. Another advantage of MEMS rate gyros are that they are ________________ reliable.
A. Extremely
B. Moderately
C. Relatively
D. Not very

A. Extremely

45

45. MEMS rate gyros are very sensitive to external environmental factors like shock, vibration, and acceleration due to the fact that the mass of the vibrating element is so small.

False

46

46. MEMS rate gyros suffer from drift and offset, and their sensitivity is lower than some of the other types

True

47

47. Accelerometers are sensors designed to measure continuous mechanical vibrations such as bearing vibration from blasts or impacts, or the lower-frequency acceleration generated by bodies in motion.

True

48

48. More sophisticated tilt sensors can be manufactured from accelerometers mounted on twoorthogonal axes and equating the relative gravity vector in each

False 3 axis

49

49. Pressure is defined as the normal force per unit area exerted by a(n) ________________ on any surface.
A. Density
B. Fluid
C. Torque
D. Acceleration

Fluid

50

50. The conventional sphygmomanometer is an indirect method of measuring blood pressure.

True

51

51. A thermocouple consists of a combination of different materials bonded together which will generate a potential difference, proportional to the temperature difference between the hot and cold terminals.

True

52

52. Tactile feedback is one of the critically important aspects of any successful hand prosthesis.

True

53

53. Tactile Feedback relies on contact-based effects including:
A. Hardness
B. Kinetelysis
C. Lubrication
D. Conductivity
E. Slippage

Harness Slippage Heat Transfer

54

54. Though tactile sensing requires sophisticated sensors, it is also reliant on the processes through which the device interacts with the explored object

True

55

55. Resistive Tactile Sensors rely on materials whose resistance changes with increases in applied force.

True

56

56. An actuator that is capable of moving an inertial load at extremely high accelerations and relocating it to an accuracy of better than 10-5 mm over limited travel is known as a:
A. Servo Motor
B. Stepper motor
C. Voice coil
D. PAM
E. DC motor

Voice Coil

57

57. Most high performance DC motors are __________________, as this would reduce inertia, and increase the space available for coil windings:
A. Copperless
B. Ironless
C. Aluminiumless
D. Steelless

Ironless

58

58. The simplest form of motor control is:
A. Open loop
B. Closed loop
C. Brushless
D. Ironless

Open Loop

59

59. To maintain a constant speed or a specific motion profile that is torque dependent, what type of control is needed?
A. Open loop
B. Closed loop
C. Brushless
D. Ironless

Open Loop

60

60. Myoelectric control is related to the subject's intention and can be used as a control variable since EMG signals reflect the activities of the muscles.

True

61

61. Connecting a DC power supply to a motor at regular intervals to provide a mean voltage is called:
A. PWM
B. DSP
C. PAM
D. PVF2
E. LVDT

PWM

62

62. Enzymes are remarkable because:
A. They are very effective in decreasing the rate of chemical reactions
B. They are extremely selective to a given substance and are very effective in increasing the rate of chemical reactions
C. They are very flexible and sensitive to temperature
D. None of these answers

B. They are extremely selective to a given substance and are very effective in increasing the rate of chemical reactions

63

63. What uses four power transistors that are independently controlled to ensure that the appropriate pulse width is applied to the motor with the correct polarity?
A. Wheatstone Bridge
B. H-bridge
C. Bridge rectifier
D. None of these

B. H-bridge

64

64. Electrochemical sensors are:
A. The most versatile and are the best developed of all the chemical sensor types.
B. sensors that measure voltage, current, or resistivity
C. sensors that generally consist of a pair of electrodes as a part of a closed circuit
D. all of these answers
E. none of these answers

All of these

65

65. Due to their availability in a wide range of sizes and associated gearheads, what is the actuator of choice in biomechatronics?
A. Servo Motor
B. Stepper motor
C. Voice coil
D. PAM
E. DC motor

DC Motor

66

67. Stepper motors use two types of coil windings - unipolar and bipolar. Bipolar coils have how much more torque compared to unipolar?
A. 10%
B. 30%
C. 100%
D. 300%

30%

67

66. Which actuator comprises of a permanent magnet or variable reluctance core that can rotate in precise angular increments in either direction and can sustain a strong holding torque at zero speed?
A. Servo Motor
B. Stepper motor
C. Voice coil
D. PAM
E. DC motor

Stepper Motor

68

68. One type of actuator that uses an error-sensing feedback to provide precision position control is called:
A. Servo
B. Stepper motor
C. Voice coil
D. PAM
E. DC motor

Servo

69

69. Hydraulic control valves are:
A. Proportional, which allow any position between open and closed.
B. Two positions, open-closed only and Four-port, three-position or 4/3 valves.
C. Check valves, which allow flow in one direction only and Poppet valves that can be forced to allow reverse flow
D. Spool valves as they can control multiple flows
E. All of the above

All of the above

70

70. In regards to hydraulic systems:
A. They generate moderate forces from large actuators.
B. They generate large forces from very compact actuators.
C. They generate medium forces from large actuators.
D. They generate moderate forces from very compact actuators.

B. They generate large forces from very compact actuators.

71

71. Compared to hydraulics, pneumatic systems are cleaner as they do not require lubrication.

False

72

72. In regards to PAMs, when the bladder is pressurized, its diameter increases, which forces the mesh to ___________________?
A. Lengthen
B. Contract
C. Expand
D. Inflate

Contract

73

73. The response time of a PAM decreases with an applied load

False

74

74. Metals that exhibit pseudo-elasticity and shape memory effect are called:
A. LDVT
B. SMA
C. MEMs
D. MEMES

SMA

75

75. Advantages of SMAs include biocompatibility, diverse applications, and strong corrosion resistant and strong contraction force. What is the primary disadvantage of SMAs?
A. High force to weight ratio
B. Expensive
C. Unproven
D. No inrush or back EMF

Expensive

76

76. A rigid body having two or more elements paired together and connected to other bodies for the purpose of transmitting force or motion is known as a:
A. Link
B. LDVT
C. SMA
D. Voice coil

Link

77

77. The primary function of a link mechanism is to produce:
A. Rotation of a crank
B. Oscillation of a crank
C. Reciprocation of a crank
D. All of these
E. None of these

All of these

78

78. When engineering linkage systems, care must be taken to ensure that the length of the various elements are never such that the connecting rod and the rocker fall in a straight line which is known as:
A. Op-Amp
B. Voice coil
C. Dead point
D. Hall effect

Dead Point